An opportunity to be seized: digestible and tolerable gluten. Why?
Gluten (it is a protein compound that is formed when glutenin and gliadin, present in flour, are strongly mixed with water) is responsible for celiac disease in genetically predisposed subjects. Not all gluten is at the origin of this pathology: the research has, in fact, isolated some sequences of amino acids (they are the “bricks” that constitute gluten) that are responsible for the adverse reaction of the innate and adaptive human immune system. These sequences are present (even several times) in the molecular chains (peptides) that constitute gluten, and, above all in gliadins. There are many studies that aim to create grains or flours without these sequences, mixtures where the action of particular bacteria present in the acid paste destroy the toxic fractions. Particular enzymes (proteases produced by Aspergillus) have been identified that can activate a complete enzymatic digestion of gliadin, reducing or eliminating the reactive response of gluten-sensitive T cells. (Toft-Hansen H et al Clin Immunol. 2014 Aug; 153 (2): 323-31. Doi: 10.1016 / j.clim.2014.05.009. Epub 2014 Jun 3).
Gluten is indigestible as such, only if divided into constituent amino acids it can be digested and, after being passed into the blood, be assimilated. The action of “chopping up the gluten is carried out by the enzyme pepsin (it is the most important of the digestive enzymes and, activated by hydrochloric acid, attacks proteins and breaks them down into fragments called polypeptides which will then be broken down into individual amino acids by trypsin ), present in the stomach and the enzyme trypsin produced by the pancreas present in the intestine. These two enzymes are not always able to “break up” the gluten and the residues are eliminated by “normal” people. These residues, on the other hand, if they contain toxic sequences activate the response of the immune system that fights them as “enemies”. The more gluten is strong (ie the stronger the bonds of the molecules that make up gluten) the more difficult and the action of enzymes will be longer. You can be born celiac but you can also become genetically predisposed. At greater risk, of course, are the relatives and relatives of celiacs. Scientific research has shown that the use in the diet of foods produced with grains as light as possible and tolerable (with the least possible amount of “toxic epitopes”) reduces the possibility of becoming celiac and is indicated for non-celiac gluten sensitive people. An example regarding the monococcus wheat we find in the study:
“…..Conclusions: Our study shows that Tm (Grano Monococco) is toxic for CD patients as judged on histological and serological criteria, but it was well tolerated by the majority of patients, suggesting that Tm is not a safe cereal for celiacs, but that it may be of value for patients with gluten sensitivity or for prevention of CD.Copyright of European Journal of Nutrition is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.”
For some time now, scientific research has highlighted another gluten-related disease: non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Today it is possible to diagnose it only through a long and complex series of analyzes which, for this reason, cannot be widely applied. The research (well summarized in the attached research) is still on the high seas, in fact, in the realization of biomarkers suitable to diagnose this pathology in a certain and simple way. Finally it should be noted that although there are very many studies, researches and tests on patients, these have proved too partial to be able to define “with certainty” how the NCGS is activated. Gliadins, however, play an important role as anti-gliadin antigen has been found in patients diagnosed with this disease. Finally, the research showed that a light and tolerable gluten is less invasive for those with irritable bowel disease.