Fodmaps (Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides And Polyols)
Over the years, numerous evidences have emerged that the ingestion of certain short-chain carbohydrates, including lactose, fructose and sorbitol, fructans and galacol oligosaccharides, induces the typical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.One method of decreasing the amount of FODMAPs and possibly the bioactivity of ATIs in bread (and thus theoretically improving its tolerability), is the utilization of prolonged fermentation processes in breadmaking. Sourdough fermentation activates some proteolytic and fructosidase enzymes in dough, and can thus decrease the amount of proteins and fructans in the end products [14,15,16,17]. The FODMAP content of sourdough bread can be reduced by up to 90% by utilizing a specific sourdough system, as demonstrated in our previous study . Taken together, sourdough baking could theoretically result in wheat products with improved gastrointestinal tolerability. (Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Reijo Laatikainen et altri. Published: 4 November 2017.) Note: The references in the text refer to the bibliography of the aforementioned study.
Yeast, on the other hand, produces inulinase and invertase enzymes which work together to effectively hydrolyze fructans (Nilsson and others 1987). Fermentation with S. cerevisiae for 1.7 h reduced fructan content of whole wheat and white flour by 33% and 48%, respectively (Knez and others 2014). (A Grounded Guide to Gluten: How Modern Genotypes and Processing Impact Wheat Sensitivity – Chapter Fermentation and microbial enzymes – Lisa Kissing Kucek, Lynn D. Veenstra, Plaimein Amnuaycheewa, and Mark E. Sorrells. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety Vol. 14, 2015)