“Once the diagnosis of NCGS is reasonably reached, the management and follow-up of patients is completely obscure. A logical approach is to undertake a gluten-free dietary regimen for a limited period (e.g., six months), followed by the gradual reintroduction of gluten. During the gluten-free diet, the ingestion of prolamine peptide (gliadin)-derived from wheat, rye, barley, oats, bulgur, and hybrids of these cereal grains-should be avoided. Rice, corn, and potatoes have been the typical substitutes, but nowadays other different cereals and pseudocereals, such as amaranth, buckwheat, manioc, fonio, teff, millet, quinoa, and sorghum, can be used. After some period on a gluten-free diet, the reintroduction of gluten can start with cereals of low gluten content (e.g., oats). In addition, einkorn farro (Triticum monococcum) can be used, having no direct in vitro or ex vivo toxicity and low (7%) gluten content”. (Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: Time for sifting the grain. Luca Elli, Leda Roncoroni, and Maria Teresa Bardella. Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved).
Prevention of CD (celiac disease): diet with grain with reduced amount of major T-cell stimulatory epitopes.
Scientific research has several times supported and encouraged the use of grains with low toxicity in the prevention of celiac disease; in the research we are now presenting, some grains have been studied highlighting their profile regarding both the presence of peptides resistant to gastro-intestinal digestion and, among these, those containing the “toxic” fraction (table 3) “ ….omissis Even if none of them can be considered safe for CD patients, grain with reduced amount of major T-cell stimulatory epitopes may help in the prevention of CD, since previous studies demonstrated that the amount and duration to gluten exposure are strictly linked to the initiation of this pathology.” (A Comprehensive Peptidomic Approach to Characterize the Protein Proﬁle of Selected Durum Wheat Genotypes: Implication for Coeliac Disease and Wheat Allergy.Rosa Pilolli , Agata Gadaleta, Luigia Di Stasio , Antonella Lamonaca, Elisabetta De Angelis , Domenica Nigro , Maria De Angelis , Gianfranco Mamone and Linda Monac. Published: 1 October 2019).
The wheat varietal selection undertaken by breeders in recent decades has tailored mainly to improve technological and productivity-related traits; however, the latter has resulted in a considerable impoverishment of the genetic diversity of wheat-based products available on the market. This pitfall has encouraged researchers to revalue the natural diversity of cultivated and non-cultivated wheat genotypes in light of their diﬀerent toxic/immunogenic potential for celiac disease and wheat-allergic patients. In the present investigation, an advanced proteomic approach was designed for the global characterization of the protein proﬁle of selected tetraploid wheat genotypes (Triticum turgidum). The approach combined proteins/peptides sequence information retrieved by speciﬁc enzymatic digestions (single and dual proteolytic enzymes) with protein digestibility information disclosed by means of in-vitro simulated human gastroduodenal digestion experiments. In both cases, the peptide pools were characterized by discovery analysis with liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, and speciﬁc amino acid sequences were identiﬁed via commercial software. The peptide list was screened for in silico toxicity/immunogenicity risk assessment, with the aid of various open-source bioinformatics tools for epitopes matching. Given the global information provided by the designed proteomic approach, the in silico risk assessment not only tackled toxicity implication for celiac disease patients, but also scouted for immunogenic sequences relevant for wheat allergic patients, achieving a comprehensive characterization of the protein proﬁle of the selected genotypes. These latter were assessed to encrypt a variable number of toxic/immunogenic epitopes for celiac disease and wheat allergy, and as such they could represent convenient bases for breeding practices and for the development of new detoxiﬁcation strategies.
Characterization of a collection of durum wheat landraces from Sicily, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers (provide a genetic fringeprint very usefull for avoiding commercial frauds).
Abstract: During the XX Century, the widespread use of modern wheat cultivars drastically reduced the cultivation of ancient landraces, which nowadays are conﬁned to niche cultivation areas. Several durum wheat landraces adapted to the extreme environments of the Mediterranean region, are still being cultivated in Sicily, Italy. Detailed knowledge of the genetic diversity of this germplasm could lay the basis for their eﬃcient management in breeding programs, for a wide-range range of traits. The aim of the present study was to characterize a collection of durum wheat landraces from Sicily, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers, together with agro-morphological, phenological and quality-related traits. Two modern cv. Simeto, Claudio, and the hexaploid landrace, Cuccitta, were used as outgroups. Cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) allowed us to identify four main clusters across the analyzed germplasm, among which a cluster included only historical and modern varieties. Likewise, structure analysis was able to distinguish the ancient varieties from the others, grouping the entries in seven cryptic genetic clusters. Furthermore, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to separate the modern testers from the ancient germplasm. This approach was useful to classify and evaluate Sicilian ancient wheat germplasm, supporting their safeguard and providing a genetic ﬁngerprint that is necessary for avoiding commercial frauds to sustaining the economic proﬁts of farmers resorting to landraces cultivation. (High-Throughput Genotype, Morphology, and Quality Traits Evaluation for the Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Wheat Landraces from Sicily. Maria Carola Fiore , Francesco Mercati, Alﬁo Spina, Sebastiano Blangiforti, Gianfranco Venora, Matteo Dell’Acqua, Antonio Lupini, Giovanni Preiti , Michele Monti, Mario Enrico Pè and Francesco Sunseri. 30 aprile 2019.)
List of grains examined
Characteristics of the grains examined
Gliadin and Glutenin
They are the wheat proteins (gliadin, soluble in alcohol and glutenin, insoluble in alcohol) and are composed of amino acid chains (1). Gliadin is made up of the union of about 100-200 amino acids (the main cause of celiac disease), and glutenin, consisting of a combination of about 2,000-20,000 amino acids. The covalent bond that unites two amino acids also takes the name in biochemistry of “peptide bond”. A chain of multiple amino acids linked through peptide bonds takes the generic name of peptide or polypeptide or oligopeptide if the number of amino acids involved is limited; one or more polypeptides, sometimes accompanied by other auxiliary structures or ions called cofactors or prosthetic groups, constitute a protein. amino-acids (or amminoacids) are the primary structural unit of proteins. We can therefore imagine the amino acids as bricks that, united by a glue called peptide bond, form a long sequence that gives rise to a protein. Alcohol soluble cereal proteins are called: prolamines.
The wheat prolamine is gliadin, that of barley is hordein; that of rye is secaline, that of avena is avenin. The different types of prolamins contain different amino-acids and the higher the content of proline and glutamine (which are some of the amino-acids that compose it) the more the prolamine, and therefore the peptides of that cereal will be toxic (2) for the affected patient from celiac disease. The highest levels of proline and glutamine are in wheat, barley and rye. Also glutenins have some toxic sequences for celiacs but they appear to be much less active in soliciting the adverse response of the humanitarian system of man.
It is the first study focused on the search for grains “naturally” with low toxicity to obtain gluten-free products without affecting the rheological properties of wheat. It is emphasized in the study as “In the last decade, the ingestion of wheat has been associated with clinical disorders, such as celiac disease (CD),wheat allergy (WA) and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), which are becoming epidemiologically more and more relevant with an estimated global prevalence of about 5%. The trigger factor eliciting CD and WA are largely investigated, while on the contrary the pathophysiology of NCGS is still poorly understood.” The sensitivity to non-celiac gluten, although not completely defined, is however also related to gluten and its toxic fractions (1) (2) (3).
Scientific research has, for some time, emphasized the importance of “decreasing the exposure of gluten to genetically predisposed people” and one way to do this is also to introduce products made with grains with low toxicity into the diet (research concerning ID331 einkorn wheat, considered among the most digestible and the most tolerable, has long underlined this aspect).
Scouting for Naturally Low-Toxicity Wheat Genotypes by a Multidisciplinary Approach. Rosa Pilolli , Agata Gadaleta, Gianfranco Mamone, Domenica Nigro, Elisabetta De Angelis, Nicola Montemurro & Linda Monaci. Scientific Reports Gennaio 2019).
(1) – Time for sifting the grain (2015). Luca Elli, Leda Roncoroni, and Maria Teresa Bardella. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jul 21; 21(27): 8221–8226. PMCID: PMC4507091 Published online 2015 Jul 21.
(2) – Differentiation between Celiac Disease, Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity, and their overlapping with Crohn’s disease: A case series. Aristo Vojdani and David Perlmutter. Decemder 2012.
(3) – Gluten Immunogenic Peptides as Standard for the Evaluation of Potential Harmful Prolamin Content in Food and Human Specimen. Ángel Cebolla, María de Lourdes Moreno, Laura Coto, Carolina Sousa. Nutriens 5 December 2018.
It is an interesting project concerning the use of ancient grains being implemented by the Department of Agriculture of the University of Sassari in collaboration with Porto Conte Ricerche. Sardinia – Italy. Fourteen Sardinian companies are experimentally producing and marketing different types of bread and biscuits, pizzas, made with two ancient Sardinian grains (durum wheat “Trigu Murru”; soft wheat “Trigu Cossu”). The main aim of the AVIPROFO project is to create a supply chain between those who produce the raw material and those who transform it, including marketing.
Project presentation The project addresses the critical issues manifested by companies in the sector: a -difficulty of innovation of traditional bakery products b- technological problems deriving from the use of local raw materials c – poor availability of raw materials produced in Sardinia. The whey from sheep’s milk powder, the result of the recovery of a by-product of the dairy industry, will be used for the characteristics of the whey-proteins provided to give structure to the gluten network of the dough, while the sourdough got the job, in addition to making the dough rise far, it hydrolyzes the lactose contained in the whey powder, by the lactic acid bacteria contained within it. The degradation of lactose in the dough will prevent the intolerant subjects from consuming these products on the label. The general objective of the project is to improve the production of durum wheat and soft wheat flour from old Sardinian varieties for the production of bakery products according to modern production technologies, with the help of an improver (sheep’s milk whey in powder) and natural yeast technology.
Responsabile scientifico: Antonio Piga
Sardegna Ricerche: Graziana Frogheri