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Comparative Analysis of in vitro Digestibility and Immunogenicity of Gliadin Proteins From Durum and Einkorn Wheat

by luciano

A very recent study that:
“show that the T. monococcum cultivars (hammurabi and Norberto ID331) own a different gliadin and glutenin types, and such differences may influence the digestibility and, consequently, the immunogenic properties of wheat proteins. Despite ancient monococcum grains have a similar gluten content or otherwise not higher with respect to modern tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, these genotypes possess a more digestible and thus potentially less toxic gluten, as also confirmed by their low gluten indexes and alveographic W value. Such characteristics could play an important role to find a better-tolerated alternative wheat species destined to patients affected by wheat-related disorders.”
Luigia Di Stasio; Stefania Picassa; Renata auricchio; Serena Vitale; Laura Gazza; Gianluca Picariello; Carmen Gianfrani; Gianfranco Mamone.
The complete study is available in:
Front. Nutr., 22 May 2020 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.00056
The study also gives an important impetus to develop bakery products using the tested monococcum wheat directly (and also the ID331 type monococcum wheat). This site contains various tests relating to products such as bread and dry products with monococcum wheat both Norberto-ID331 and monococcum type ID331.

Einkorn bread 100%. new test with indirect method

by luciano

New test with indirect method to obtain a einkorn wheat bread with very high digestibility and tolerability. (suitable for non-celiac gluten / wheat sensitive people).
Introduction
This test follows the one presented on 27th -September -2019: https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/09/27/einkorn-bread100/
From that presentation we take all the introductory part that remains unchanged. “Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of einkorn wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/).
For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.
In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)
Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).
Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.
You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation. The use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread.”
Method chosen: this test is carried out using the pre-ferment followed by the final dough.
Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – of a a retarder prover.
Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour (a flour through a 600 micron sieve), stone-ground flour, produced by “Podere Pereto Rapolano Terme Siena, 2019 harvest. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). The method is for expert people”.

The purpose of test
The purpose of this test is to try to reach the limit of tightness of the dough so consequently the lactobacilli of the sourdough can hydrolyze (break) as much as possible the gluten to make it more digestible and tolerable. Beyond this limit we have the total disintegration of the glutinic network. The product obtained is a bread suitable for people (NOT CELIAC PEOPLE) who have a lot of difficulty with gluten.

Obviously it is possible by decreasing, for example, the fermentation time from 21 hours to 18 in order to have a less hydrolyzed dough obtaining an absolutely excellent bread. The “W” index of this flour is modest, placing itself below the value of 50. This means that the dough has little stability and develops a limited and weak glutinic network. I remember that in all the doughs made with flours with little “strength” it is essential to be able to introduce air into the dough which, during the cooking phase, will help to make the crumb non-compact.
Ingrendients
Idratazione 60% 900 =540gr. (effettiva con 45 acqua licoli = 585gr. pari al 65% circa)

preimpasto

impasto

1

Farina

400gr.

500gr.

2

Acqua

180gr

540-180 =360gr.

260 + 100 (-20gr)*

3

LiCoLi

90gr.

0

4

L. di B.

0,8gr.+10gr. acqua

0,8gr.+10gr. acqua

5

Malto

0

10,8gr.

1,2% di 900gr.

6

Sale

0

16,2gr.

1,8% di 900gr.

11gr.

38gr.

681gr.

898gr.

* this value is variable depending on the moisture content of the flour and also on the degree of wheat grinding, in the test carried out the amount of water added in the final phase (5 steps) was, precisely 80gr. instead of 100gr. that was the standard average value to use.

Steps
1 step: refresh the sourdough – made with Podere Pereto einkorn wheat- as liquid batter (Li.Co.Li.) not as stiff dough twice in a row and use it well mature (preparation times vary depending on the room temperature, on average 4 hours + 4 hours). Li.Co.Li. should be stored (as a precaution) in the refrigerator and, therefore, before cooling it, it should be kept for at least 1 hour at room temperature.
2 step: prepare the preferment with 400gr. flour and 180gr. of water, both cold (from the refrigerator) and 0.8gr. of fresh compressed beer yeast dissolved in very little non-cold water. The preferment should be mixed unstrung, it must not be wet or dry but lumpy pasty. The temperature of the pre-mix at the end of the preparation must be around 18C °.
3 step: put the pre-dough in a plastic bowl (lightly greased with seed oil) covered at 18 ° C for 12 hours.
4 step: after 12 hours, place the pre-dough in a mixer / mixer bowl, add 260gr. of water and use a blade blender to dissolve it and incorporate a lot of air (perform with care). Now add the malt (10.8gr.), the yeast (0.8gr.) and blend again (about 5 minutes).
5 step: now using the planetary mixer with the hook, add all the flour still available and 80gr. of water to the mixture referred to in the previous step (it is not necessary to mix completely ). If there is flour left in the bottom of the bowl, add a little water, very very little. In this test, done with twice the amount of flour and, consequently, twice as much as any other ingredient, i used the Mecnosud Mamy Forcellina 7 mixer for this phase with speed 4 and time 10 minutes.
6 step: and complete by hand to homogenize.
7 step: then put the dough in a covered plastic bowl (lightly greased with seed oil) in the fridge for 21 hours checking that the temperature of the dough does not exceed about 18 degrees so that the dough ripens in the cold but little, very little yeast; the leavening will take place later (in this test I used a retarder ).
8 step: take the bowl from the fridge and put it with its lid on a hot surface (the one used in the rotisseries) heated to 30 degrees for 2 hours or more (the dough on the surface should reach a temperature of about 18/19 degrees ). In this test: 2 hours.
9 steps: pour the dough on a pastry board lightly greased with seed oil (resting on the warm surface), manipulate (make folds) the dough for about 2-3 minutes. Give it the shape of a “loaf” and place it in a leavening basket type banneton (covered with baking parchment paper). Place the basket in a closed plastic bag (it is used to keep the dough moist and not to dry out the surface) and put it on a hot surface at 30 degrees for about 1 hour or as much as needed for the proofing. In this test: 1 hour and 30 minutes.
10 step: place the dough with his baking parchment paper on a baking sheet and bake. You can also spill off the loaf over on the baking tray; I use this mode if the surface of the dough has many cracks. Make cuts on the surface as long as the dough is not too leavened or too hydrated.
11 steps: average cooking time 1 hour and 10 minutes (depending on the type of oven). Static cooking, possibly with a water pot inside for 1 hour; last 10 minutes naked loaf on the grid in the oven (the bottom of the loaf should still be slightly soft). In these 10 minutes the loaf will grow a little bit again.

Result: a bread with always different aromas and flavors full of the “hints” of the wheat used. Characterized by a light acidic note that accompanies its flavor thanks to the fermentation carried out by the sourdough. Acid fermentation which gives the bread digestibility and high tolerability.
A bread without gummy notes and with a long shelf-life. No additives, no improvers like all the loaves presented on this site. A bread with a rough crust and a good crumb present despite the fact that this flour – almost wholewheat – has little gluten and is rather weak. With this method if we we get to hydrolyze almost all gluten we will get a “crumbly” bread!
Note:
1 – step n. 4, 5, and 6: total time approximately 30 minutes
2 – the flour and water must have a temperature so that the dough has a temperature of about 18 degrees at the end of the 6th step.
3 – NEVER use dusting flour but anoint hands and pastry surface with very little seed oil.
4 – Doughs with flours with weak and low gluten have a gluten network with limited stability and strength. By heating the dough from below we preserve the surface a little from the early breakages.
5 – If the dough after refrigerator time has a broken surface, reduce the time of step n. 7 from 21 to 18 hours.
6 – The dough with einkorn flour in long maturations tends to release part of the water absorbed making the dough sticky: if excessive decrease the hydration (less water in step n. 5).
7 – These doughs are very hydrated and when they are put in the baking sheet they will tend to give a low bread. To obtain a bread, as in the photo, a plumcake type container should be used, handmade with the bottom of the oven aluminum containers; the soft walls of the container will allow the dough to “take” its own shape.

IMPORTANT: Buy Einkorn 100% semi-wholemeal wheat flour avoiding Monlis (because it has a very indigestible fraction –type 33mer). Hammurabi wheat is very difficult to use.

Photographic report:
Photo 1: dough after resting at 5 ° C.

Photo 2: dough in the basket for the final leavening.

Photo 3: dough ready for the oven

Photo A-B-C: baked bread

 

 

 

 

 

 

References
(1) – The conditions of grinding a grain determine the degree of damage starch, influencing the characteristics of the flour; a modest damage can be beneficial, an excessive degree is undesirable. The undamaged starch granules swell and gelatinize only weakly at the temperature good to kned dough and leavening, while for the damaged ones the process takes place almost totally. The starch granules, not damaged by grinding, during the dough fermentation process are not attacked by beta-amylase and only slowly by alpha-amylase which transforms them into maltose. In contrast, the crushed granules are hydrolyzed by amylases. The use of too finely ground flour, with a high percentage of damaged granules, leads to the formation of bread with a lower volume than normal, with moist and badly cooked crumb, characterized by an excessively dark color of the crust.

(2) – If the amylases are too active (Falling Number values ​​lower than 220 seconds) the final products will have a flat shape, moist and sticky crumb and dark crust. If, on the other hand, it is greater than 350, this flour will have a weak amylase activity and the final product will be little developed and with compact and dry crumb.

Deepening
THE IMPORTANCE OF DAMAGED STARCH. It increases water absorption and provides extra nutrition for the yeast. A high level of damaged starch would result in sticky dough that produces a weak side wall and a sticky crumb (if enough amylolytic enzymes are available). The level of starch damage directly affects the water absorption and the dough mixing properties of the flour and is of technological significance. Damaged starch absorbs 2 to 4 times more water than regular starch granules. Sticky doughs, high water absorption, longer proofing times, and red bread crust color are just some of the effects of damaged starch. Damaged starch granules are susceptible to enzymatic degradation in comparison to native starches. Better knowledge of levels of damaged starch in flours is essential for better screening of flour. The optimum DS value varies with the use of the flour and is greatly dependent upon the flour protein content, the alpha amylase activity, and the type of bread to be made from the flour.

Keywords: Einkorn, non celiac gluten sensivity, gluten light, gluten light bread

Advanced tips for home baking bread (gas oven)

by luciano

TIPS

• Place the dough on a micro-perforated grid (possibly with interposed a baking paper) under which we will place the baking tray. This creates a layer of air between the baking tray and the bottom of the bread (loaf /sandwiches) (photo n. 1). The bottom of the bread, not being in direct contact with baking tray, will not be subject to burning. Furthermore, if the bottom of the bread does not harden immediately, the heat can penetrate better and cook the inside of the bread well.
• It is better to create micro holes in the baking paper (if Non Stick Waterproof Baking Paper) to avoid the formation of humidity under the bread.
• Personally I use a flat cuki container with the bottom replaced with a perforated surface (photos n. 1 and 4). Cooking is perfect.
• If the dough is very hydrated, however, during cooking it will tend to swing up becoming a “ciabatta”. This type of dough should be cooked in plumcake-container; I use a aluminum one (made from a cuki ) to which I have given the shape of a plumcake container but without blocking the corners. (photos n. 2 and 3) The dough put in this container will tend to widen as the lateral sides with are not rigid; enlargement that will continue in the first phase of cooking and, in this way, the bread will take its own shape.
• Cooking must take place in the presence of steam and oven in static mode (without ventilation). We will put a pan of water in the oven (generally 100-150 gr. of water is sufficient). Moisture delays the formation of the crust allowing the bread to grow in volume.
• The last 10 minutes of baking, the bread must be placed directly on the baking tray without container and without pan with a temperature of around 180-200 degrees (dough hypothesis of 1500-1800 grams). In doing this you will find that the bottom of the bread will still be slightly soft: this will allow the heat of the last 10 minutes of cooking to make it “rise” again. Last recommendation: preheated oven and start cooking at 250 degrees then gradually descending in relation to the characteristics of your oven.
• Last step: if you want a bread with a crust open little the door of the oven, set the temperature to the minimum for 15-30 minutes according to the “consistency” of the desired crust.

Photos:

N. 1

N.2

N.3

N.4

Einkorn bread with olive oil 100% -recipe-

by luciano

Einkorn bread with olive oil 100%
(suitable for people sensitive to gluten / wheat -NOT FOR CELIAC PEOPLE-)

This test follows the one presented on 27th -September -2019: https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/09/27/einkorn-bread100/
From that presentation we take all the introductory part that remains unchanged.
“Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of einkorn wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/).
For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.
In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)
Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).
Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.
You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation. The use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread. A first step we do using a simplified version (direct metod) of the a new industrial method that involves the construction of the pre-ferment followed by the final dough. Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – of a a retarder prover.
Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour, stone-ground, producer “I grani di Atlantide di Lorenzo Moi” 2018 harvest. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). The method is for expert people”.

Dough properties and baking performance of einkorn flour

by luciano

The presence or absence of specific proteins, the quantities of gluten proteins and the ratios of gliadins to glutenins or of gluten protein types determine the dough properties and baking performance of flours [1] and these characteristics can be very different, in terms of quality and quantity, according to the accessions.

Highlights from scientific literature:

Einkorn lines may have strongly different contents of protein even under the same growing conditions [2]
Einkorn flours have a relatively high contents of total gliadins when compared to the contents of glutenins. The content of gliadins or glutenins can also doubles between different accessions.
The ratio of gliadins to glutenins it can also triples between different accessions.
The α-gliadins were more abundant than γ-gliadins: they can also be double that of γ-gliadins.
The contents of ω5-gliadins is very hgh for einkorn compared to common wheat. The quantity of ω5-gliadins can also triples between different accessions. In accession ID331 the ω5-gliadins are absent.
In einkorn flours HMW-GS present a very low contents compared to common wheat. HMW-GS proteins can also double between different accessions.
LMW-GS are the protein type most present in the glutenin fractions. LMW-GS proteins can also double down between different accessions.
The influence of the genotype on the proportions of gliadins, glutenins and the different gluten protein types with respect to total protein can be very strong. Gliadins represent the 80-94% of total gluten proteins, glutenins represent the 6-20% of total gluten proteins.
HMWGS, essential for creating the network of gluten polymers [21], are far lower in quantity than common wheat. Their quantity can also be about 4% lower.

These characteristics (strongly affected by the genotype [4]) are decisively reflected on the rheological characteristics, clearly influencing:
• the formation of the dough which has very low stability (dough development time was negatively correlated with the ratio of gliadins to glutenins and positively with the content of glutenins) and a poor ability to rise (due to the weakness of the glutinic network which has a generally very limited ability to expand).
• The final result: loaf form, crumb structure, and bread volume (mainly dependent on the content of HMW glutenins; and not very sensitive to the ratio gliadins to glutenins)

  • However, there are also genotypes with an excellent aptitude for baking (Saponaro et al., 1995; Borghi et al., 1996)

More:
• Einkorn gluten has a high gas retention capacity and a low water retention capacity (D’Egidio et al. 1993)
• Doughs prepared from einkorn flour also exhibit lower mixograph characteristics and are sticky and difficult to handle mechanically (Yamashita et al. 1957)
• Einkorn grain has a very soft texture (Pogna et al. 2002)
• In contrast to common wheat, the bread quality of einkorn flour is not influenced by the content of total gluten proteins, whereas other parameters such as glutenin content and the ratio of gliadins to glutenins are as important as for common wheat [5].

Note:
From the “Studies on the protein composition and baking quality of einkorn lines Herbert Wieser · Karl-Josef Mueller · Peter Koehler”
“The absence of a group of γ-gliadins at the beginning of the γ-gliadin elution region was unique for einkorn compared to all other wheat species. “
Questa caratteristica ne permette la classificazione in quattro gruppi, ulteriore sottodivisione è possibile analizzando il numero di ω5-gliadine presenti e le subunità delle glutenine a basso peso molecolare.

References
1. Kieffer R, Wieser H, Henderson MH, Graveland A (1998) J Cereal Sci 27:53–60
2. Brandolini A, Hidalgo A, Moscaritolo S (2008) J Cereal Sci 47:599–609
3. Wieser H, Bushuk W, MacRitchie F (2006) In: Wrigley C, Bekes F, Bushuk W (eds) Gliadin and glutenin—the unique balance of wheat quality. AACC International, St. Paul, pp 213–240
4. Borghi B, Castagna R, Corbellini M, Heun M, Salamini F (1996) Cereal Chem 73:208–214
5. Abdel-Aal E-SM, Hucl P, Sosulski FW, Bhirud PR (1997) J Cereal Sci 26:363–370

Keywords: einkorn dough properties; einkorn baking performance; gliadins; glutenins; ratio of gliadins to glutenins; α-gliadins; γ-gliadins; ω5-gliadins; einkorn dough development time; einkorn loaf form; einkorn crumb structure, einkorn bread volumes and HMW glutenins; high einkorn gas retention capacity; einkorn low water retention capacity; einkorn handle mechanically difficult; sticky einkorn doughs; einkorn low mixograph characteristics