The agrotecnica in the last 50 years has undergone a strong evolution that has resulted.
- New methods for distributing nitrogen fertilizer (N)
- Introduction of fungicidal defense
- Introduction of growth regulators
- Introduction of soil surface treatments
Particular attention was paid to the use of nitrogen fertilizers due to the effects both on the quantity of grain produced and on the quality of the grain. In fact, by increasing the nitrogen supply an increase in protein and gluten is obtained. The minimum nitrogen fertilization up to the 60s has been increasing until reaching even 220 Kg. per hectare as well as being distributed over the plant’s growth span.
With the increase and delay of nitrogen distribution (N)
- a) Increase the protein content of grain and flour
- b) Albumin and Globulin are reduced while Gliadins and Glutenines increase (Godfrey, 2011; Pechanek, 1997)
- c) The GLU HMW / LMW report is increasing (Pechanek, 1997)
- d) The GLI / GLU ratio is growing (Du Pont et al., 2006; Gupta et al, 1992)
- e) The content in GLI α, β, γ increases while stable ω (Du Pont et al., 2006; Wieser & Seilmeier, 1998) f) Free AAs increase: Ala, Aso, Ile, Val (Godfrey, 2011) From: The evolution of agronomic techniques and the opportunity of minor cereals. Amedeo Reyneri, Debora Giordano University of Turin DISAFA. 2014.
Many other researches have highlighted the effects of nitrogen and sulfur on wheat, which substantially alter the proportions of the protein content. Changes that affect both digestibility and tolerability. The effects are very different depending on the variety, the quantity of fertilizers and the vegetative period during which they are used. Herbert Wieser Werner Seilmeier First published: 26 March 1999. https://doi.org/10.1002/ (SICI) 1097-0010 (199801) 76: 1 < 49 :: AID-JSFA950> 3.0.CO; 2-2. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. Monococcum. Titouan Bonnot et others. 2017. The Plant Journal (2017) 91, 894–910. Effects of nitrogen nutrition on the synthesis and deposition of the β-gliadins of wheat. Yongfang Wan, Cristina Sanchis Gritsch, Malcolm J. Hawkesford and Peter R. Shewry. Department of Plant Biology and Crop Science, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK. It is therefore very important that the use of fertilizers is controlled and appropriate in order to alter the grain as little as possible, to respect the vegetative cycle without “forcing” to respect the soil. The “ancient” grains do not need fertilizers, herbicides and fungicides, they are naturally suited to organic farming.