Maturation and fermentation are just two of the many processes that take place within a dough: they are not the same thing and they must not be confused with each other. The general concept of “fermentation” is known and is quite well known and is understood as the complex of biological reactions involving the transformation of sugars as the lactic fermentation and the alcohol. During such metabolisms part of the sugars present in the dough are transformed by the yeast and by bacteria into acids, carbon dioxide, water, ethyl alcohol, energy etc.. and macroscopically result in a lowering of the pH value, in the production of aromatic substances and / or volatile, in gas production and in the increase of the dough mass. The term “maturation” on the other hand, refer to the complex of countless biochemical reactions that is the basis of cleavage or enzymatic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules; macromolecules from complex to simple amino acids in the case of proteins, in the case of polysaccharides to monosaccharides. These reactions take long time, while the fermentation is much faster; the fermentation, however, can be slowed down very much if the dough is placed at rest in a low temperature (from 1 ° C to 4 ° C max). In this way we give the opportunity to the dough to mature; only to maturation occurred will choose to operate the gradual raising of the temperature in order to increase, to balance and optimize the fermentation process. Prolonghed fermentation and maturation also have an influence, not secondary, both on the shelf life both on the organoleptic characteristics of the finished product conferring, between the other, perfumes and flavors emphasized.