“In formulating Gluten Free products, therefore, the first problem to be solved is the absence of the protein network on which to build the product. This deficiency affects the structure of the product both in terms of volume and organoleptic level. The formulations are based mainly on mixtures of starches and substances that act as “glue” and often have a strong nutritional imbalance, ie a strong fiber deficiency and a high glycemic index. The Glycemic Index clarifies how quickly the ingested carbohydrate is demolished, absorbed and released into the bloodstream as an energy source for the cells. Foods with low Glycemic Index release energy in a prolonged way, constantly and allow to avoid the feeling of hunger a few hours after a meal. Foods with high Glycemic Index release energy in the form of glucose very quickly with the result that the feeling of hunger is not slow to be felt and the excess glucose is transformed into fat storage. In the report “Glycemic Index and Gluten Free Products” by Dr. Alessandra Bosetti, clinical dietician at the Sacco hospital, the need to reconsider the characteristics of the dieto-therapeutic products to improve their glycemic index and nutritional adequacy emerge . In the various baked products there is also a series of organoleptic defects summarized here:
• Biscuits: lack of bite consistency, too hard structure or excess of sand, lack of taste persistence;
• Baked cakes: no volume, they dry quickly, gumminess, lack of taste, unbalanced nutritional profile;
• Bread, pizza: it lacks volume, it lacks elasticity in the crumb, poorly homogeneous crumb, gumminess, unbalanced nutritional profile.
In the different formulations corn flours, rice, quinoa, buckwheat are used, to which are added amides with structuring or emulsifying function and hydrocolloids. The latter have the important function of absorbing and retaining the water of the mixture and during cooking to create a gelatinized starch containment mesh. The main hydrocolloids used include guar gum, xanthan, carrageenan and hydroxymethylcellulose. To make the best use of these products, it is advisable to use hot water or long resting times that allow optimal hydration of the fibers. Still little has been studied on kneading machines: the spiral kneader the fork or the diving arms are the least suitable when there is no gluten to be formed or oriented. Normally planetary mixers are used to have the best hydration of the different components; moreover, if they allow an optimal oxidation of the dough, the mesh formed by rubbers and starches shows a better resistance and functionality. ” From: https://www.sigmasrl.com/it/blog/im purchased-del-gluten-free