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ATI (Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors) (Second part)

by luciano

Anti nutritional factors in cereals, especially amylase trypsin inhibitors, affecting digestibility.
“Anti nutritional factors (ANF) play an important role in cereals to protect against infestation and animal consumption. From an agronomic point of view these pest barriers are beneficial as the required pest control measures (chemical pesticides, storage facilities) is relatively limited.
From a health point of view a large group of ANF, the ATI are of special interest as they may impact digestion in multiple ways, e.g. they:
• can reduce digestibility of food directly by inhibition of enzymes from the digestive tract (human and microbiome; Weegels 1994),
• can increase the load of allergenic peptide presented to the small intestine, thus (così) increasing the allergenic and inflammation reactions (Junker et al. 2012; Zevallos et al 2014)
• complexation  behavior may strongly interact with the small intestine epithelium that can cause inflammation by itself (Zevallos et al 2014)
• are the not yet completely understood cause of Bakers asthma (asma), the major labour related allergy (Stobnicka and Górny, 2015)
• can increase the load of non digested peptides and carbohydrates especially of non-starch polysaccharides (FODMAPS) that are a major cause of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) which affects 7% to 21% of the general population (Chey et al 2015)
• may impact the microbiome itself. This is not established in detail
From a food processing point of view ATI’s play a negative role as they inhibit enzymes that are added as processing aids for improved processing and bread quality. This reduces processing effectiveness and quality control of cereal based products.
Understanding the role of ATI in cereals food processing and food digestion and mitigation of the negative effects is therefor (perciò) of prime importance for food safety, security and sustainability.
An interesting way to mitigate the effect of ATI could be by altering its molecular structure that is stabilised by the large number of disulphide bonds (5-6 on ca. 14 kDa; Buchanan et al 1997)”. “https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Chair-groups/Agrotechnology-and-Food-Sciences/Laboratory-of-Food-Chemistry/Research/Themes/Technology-of-cereal-foods-digestibility.htm”


Nutritional quality of Gluten-fre diet

by luciano

“Background & aims: The only available treatment for celiac disease (CD) is lifelong adherence to gluten free (GF)-diet. However, GF-diet may lead to possible nutrient unbalance resulting in improper nutritional quality of diet. The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional quality of GF-diet. Methods: MEDLINE(®)/PubMed and Cochrane Library were electronically searched for articles published between 1990/01/01 and 2015/09/01.
Results: GF-diet was found to be poor in alimentary fiber due in particular to the necessary avoidance of several kinds of foods naturally rich in fiber (i.e. grain) and the low content of fiber of GF product that are usually made with starches and/or refined flours. Micronutrients are also found to be poor, in particular Vit. D, Vit. B12 and folate, in addition to some minerals such as iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium. Moreover, an inadequate macronutrient intake was reported related above all to the focus on the avoidance of gluten that often leaving back the importance of nutritional quality of the choice. In particular, it was found a higher content of both saturated and hydrogenated fatty acids and an increase in the glycemic index and glycemic load of the meal.” Gluten free diet and nutrient deficiencies: A review. Giorgia Vici May 2016 Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 35(6) DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2016.05.002

Kywords: gluten-free, saturated fatty acids, hydrogenated fatty acids, glycemic index, glycemic load,

Glycemic index and grains

by luciano

Glycemic index is very important for diabetics in managing blood sugar, or even those who have been told they are at risk for developing diabetes. Wheat, given its high use for many consumer products,has been and is the subject of many researches and studies in relation to its glycemic index. The glycemic index of a product made with wheat is related to, among other things:
the composition of the sugars of its starch
the degree of refinement of the flour used
the method of preparing the dough

Composition of wheat starch sugars
Wheat starch is composed of two sugars amylose and amylopctin. Amylose is more prevalent in quantity than amylopectin and is rapidly hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes resulting, therefore, more responsible for the “glycemic peak”. T. monococcum wheat (einkorn) is an exception because the amylose content (23.3-28.6% of the total starch) (Hidalgo et al .. 2014) is lower than durum wheat (30% ) and soft wheat (35-43
Degree of refinement of the flour
Wholemeal flour has a lower glycemic index than refined flour.
A large study examining almost 43000 people for up to 12 years found that a diet high in whole grains was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk [3].
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown a beneficial effect of fiber, especially wheat fiber, in reducing the risk of diabetes (1–2) and cardiovascular disease (3,4), and a recent report indicated that total dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced CHD risk factors in young people (5). Fung TT, Hu FB, Pereira MA, et al. Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;76(3):535–540. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Dough: Sourdough fermentation, the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL).
The glycemic index (GI) is the number from 0 to 100 assigned to a food (pure glucose has been arbitrarily given the value of 100) which is indicative of the relative rise in blood glucose levels found 2h after the food has been consumed. The GI of a specific food depends primarily on the quantity and type of carbohydrate it contains, but it is also affected by numerous other factors including the amount of organic acids.
The glycemic load (GL) is a value indicating how quickly a given food portion elevates blood glucose levels. It takes into account both the amount of carbohydrates in the serving and how quickly it raises blood glucose levels (GL = GI × carbohydrate/100). A GL of 0–10 = low GL; 11–19 = medium GL; 20 and over = high GL). Sourdough fermentation of wheat flour dough significantly lowers the GI of bread by reducing the rate of starch digestion, mostly through the formation of organic acids that delay the absorption of starch [6]. Starch is absorbed more slowly in the presence of lactic acid due to the inhibition of amylolytic enzymes, and its bioavailability is reduced due to the interaction between starch and gluten [7]. Acetic acid delays the gastric empting rate [8]. The Mediterranean way: why elderly people should eat wholewheat sourdough bread—a little known component of the Mediterranean diet and healthy food for elderly adults. Antonio Capurso, Cristiano Capurso. 13 november 2019 springer

1 – Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Hennekens CH, Willett WC: A prospective study of whole-grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in US women. Am J Public Health 90: 1409–1415, 2000 PubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

2 – Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Jenkins DJ, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL, Willett WC: Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20:545–550, 1997.  Abstract/FREE Full TextGoogle Scholar

3 – Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, Rimm E, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC: Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 70:412–419, 1999. Abstract/FREE Full TextGoogle Scholar

4 – Wolk A, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hu FB, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC: Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 281:1998–2004, 1999
CrossRefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
5 – Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke CH, Hilner JE, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR Jr: Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA 282:1539–1546, 1999.  CrossRefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
6 – Poutanen K, Flander L, Katina K (2009) Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective. Food Microbiol 26:693–699
7 – Liljeberg H, Björck I (1998) Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur J Clin Nutr 52:368–371
8 – Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller JC (2008) International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care 31:2281–2283

“The glycemic index [GI] a system that ranks foods on a scale from 1 to 100 based on their effect on blood-sugar levels.”
The purpose of this scale is so that sensitive individuals can judge the impact a particular food will have on their blood sugar, and either eat or avoid it accordingly. This is very important for diabetics in managing blood sugar, or even those who have been told they are at risk for developing diabetes.
Now, that rank is from 1 to 100, but that means nothing without context.
• High GI foods are ranked at 70 or greater — like potatoes
• Medium GI foods are ranked at 56 to 69 — like sweet potatoes and corn; sweeter fruits like pineapple and apricots; and millet
• Low GI foods are ranked at 55 or lower — like carrots and other moderately sweet vegetables, most other fruits, most nuts/seeds; beans; dairy; and most grains
• Very Low GI foods are ranked below any of these because they have no impact on blood sugar or no established GI value — like non-starchy vegetables; spices; herbs; and meats and seafood
By the way, this information comes from The World’s Healthiest Foods.
The high GI foods cause a sudden and extreme spike in blood sugar levels, while medium/low GI foods produce a more gradual increase.

Kewords: glycemic index, glycemic load, einkorn, monococcum wheat, Wholemeal flour

Pizza with Einkorn 100%

by luciano

Test with indirect method to obtain a einkorn wheat pizza with very high digestibility and tolerability. (suitable for non-celiac gluten / wheat sensitive people).
Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of einkorn wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/).
For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.
In summary the main difficulties:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)

Long cold maturation times
Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).
Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.
You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation. The use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread.”
Method chosen:
this test is carried out using the pre-ferment followed by the final dough.

Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – of a a retarder prover. Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour (a flour through a 600 micron sieve), stone-ground flour, produced by “I Grani di Atlantide di Lorenzo Moi” collected in 2020. Semi-wholemeal means, in this case, flour obtained by sieving the wholemeal flour purchased with a 600 micron mesh sieve.
This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). The method is for expert people”.

The purpose of test
The purpose of this test is to try to reach the limit of tightness of the dough so consequently the lactobacilli of the sourdough can hydrolyze (break) as much as possible the gluten to make it more digestible and tolerable. Beyond this limit we have the total disintegration of the glutinic network. The product obtained is a bread suitable for people (NOT CELIAC PEOPLE) who have a lot of difficulty with gluten. Obviously it is possible by decreasing, for example, the fermentation time from 21 hours to 18 in order to have a less hydrolyzed dough obtaining an absolutely excellent bread. The “W” index of this flour is modest, placing itself below the value of 50. This means that the dough has little stability and develops a limited and weak glutinic network. I remember that in all the doughs made with flours with little “strength” it is essential to be able to introduce air into the dough which, during the cooking phase, will help to make the crumb non-compact.


More tolerable durum wheat for non-celiac gluten sensitive subjects

by luciano

The aim of the study “In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes” is the identification of accessions of durum wheat with the least amount of fractions (epitopes) that activate the adverse response of the human immune system in celiac disease and not only.
Durum wheat with a smaller amount of these fractions (epitopes) might help undiagnosed CD-patients (approximately 95% of all CD-patients) who are daily consuming CD-stimulating gluten proteins without realizing its effect on their health and well being.
Durnm wheat identified although not suitable for celiac subjects “may contribute to delay or even prevent the onset of CD and its symptom development in that part of the population that is genetically susceptible, especially in children 37 (van den Broeck et al. in press), because the quantity of consumed CD-epitopes is a major factor that may influence the clinical representation of CD, along with some other recognized factors such as the type of cow’s milk formulas, omission of breast feeding, and age at gluten introduction. “

The study analyzed the gluten of “103 tetraploid wheat accessions (obtained from the Dutch CGN genebank and from the French INRA collection) including landraces, old, modern, and domesticated accessions of various tetraploid species and subspecies from many geographic origins. Those accessions were typed for their level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes.” The study has highlighted the existence of “ 8 CGN and 6 INRA accessions with reduced epitope staining.”
…omissis “Tetraploid wheats contain less T-cell stimulatory a-gliadin epitopes than hexaploid bread wheat because of the absence of the D-genome. The highly immunodominant T-cell stimulating 33-mer is exclusively present in a-gliadins encoded by the D-genome (bread wheat). In addition, the levels of T-cell stimulatory epitopes have been shown to vary among varieties (van den Broeck et al. ). This opens possibilities to select for wheat varieties with significantly reduced a-gliadin epitope levels, aiming at direct use or to apply in breeding programs directed towards large-scale reduction or even total elimination of CD-stimulating gluten-elements from wheat.”

From the study
“A landrace may be a mixture of genotypes, which evolved under the environmental conditions where they were grown because of natural selection and selection by the farmer. Tetraploid wheat can mix up with hexaploid bread wheat very easily under agricultural conditions and care should be taken if the tetraploid wheat should be maintained as a pure genotype. As a result, many commercial lots, currently sold as durum wheat, nearly always contain some hexaploid bread wheat.”

“Differences among wheat varieties in gluten proteins occur because of allelic variation (genotype) that determines the gluten protein composition. The approach we used in this study analyzes this genotypic variation by comparing the same amount of gluten protein per accession. Changes in gluten protein composition have been described, but are mainly expected if growth conditions are extreme (high or low temperature, dry or wet conditions). The varieties and accessions we have analyzed were grown under normal wheat growth conditions and therefore, their influence on the gluten protein composition is not expected.”

”The occurrence of different genotypes and even different ploidy levels in a single genebank accession is a complicating phenomenon for genebank managers to accurately characterize landraces. Many landraces often result from maintenance and selection practices by local farmers directed towards optimizations to local agronomic and food applications. As a consequence, genebank passport data turned out to be poor predictors of the real genetic composition of landrace accessions that may be mixtures of genotypes of tetraploid and even hexaploid wheat species.”

In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes. Hetty van den Broeck et al.
www.rsc.org/molecularbiosystems. July 2010 DOI: 10.1039/c0mb00046a


durum wheat, less toxic wheat, immunogenicity of wheat, predisposition to celiac disease, more tolerable durum wheat varieties, gluten proteins