“Previous studies have documented that landraces and older wheat varieties contain more diverse gene combinations for prolamins (wheat proteins) in comparison to modern varieties (10, 11). Literature shows variations for speciﬁc gene sequences mainly in the epitopic regions of Glia-α9, Glia-α2, Glia-α20, and Glia-α in older landraces (9). In the last decade in the context of CD, the immunogenicity of T-cell speciﬁc epitopes has been bought to the forefront (9, 12). The immunogenic potential amongst diﬀerent hexaploid wheat varieties is variable; hence it is possible that there are breeding-induced diﬀerences in the presence and expression of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in modern varieties of wheat (13, 14). This raises the question of, whether there is any speciﬁc variety of wheat which is less immunogenic and can be used in breeding programs for developing a wheat genotype completely safe for consumption by patients suﬀering from CD”.
• The identiﬁcation of less/non-immunogenic wheat species is an important milestone that could help patients or even prevent CD.
• With the use of gluten-speciﬁc T-cells and PBMCs, wheat genotypes containing minimally harmful gluten sequences can be selected.
The research we present is an excellent compendium of current knowledge on non-celiac gluten sensitivity
“Abstract: Wheat is an important staple food globally, providing a signiﬁcant contribution to daily energy, ﬁber, and micronutrient intake. Observational evidence for health impacts of consuming more whole grains, among which wheat is a major contributor, points to signiﬁcant risk reduction for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colon cancer. However, speciﬁc wheat components may also elicit adverse physical reactions in susceptible individuals such as celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy (WA). Recently, broad coverage in the popular and social media has suggested that wheat consumption leads to a wide range of adverse health effects. This has motivated many consumers to avoid or reduce their consumption of foods that contain wheat/gluten, despite the absence of diagnosed CD or WA, raising questions about underlying mechanisms and possible nocebo effects. However, recent studies did show that some individuals may suffer from adverse reactions in absence of CD and WA. This condition is called non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS). In addition to gluten, wheat and derived products contain many other components which may trigger symptoms, including inhibitors of α-amylase and trypsin (ATIs), lectins, and rapidly fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs). Furthermore, the way in which foods are being processed, such as the use of yeast or sourdough fermentation, fermentation time and baking conditions, may also affect the presence and bioactivity of these components. The present review systematically describes the characteristics of wheat-related intolerances, including their etiology, prevalence, the components responsible, diagnosis, and strategies to reduce adverse reactions.
Extract from the study:
Non-Celiac Gluten/Wheat Sensitivity
During recent years a third group of people has been classiﬁed who experience symptoms after eating wheat products, but have been diagnosed not to suffer from either WA or CD. Mostly these individuals are self diagnosed wheat intolerant/sensitive. In these individuals, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-like gastrointestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal complaints occur, which improve on a gluten-free diet. This group of patients is referred to as “non-celiac gluten sensitivity” (NCGS), or the more recently, “non-celiac wheat sensitivity” (NCWS). Di Sabatino emphasizes that NCWS is not a homogeneous disease syndrome (such as CD and WA), but rather a heterogeneous syndrome (Di Sabatino & Corazza, 2012). It is probable that the underlying causes and mechanisms are not the same for all people with NCWS and that reactions may be caused by different components of wheat or grain (products) and involving different host factors. Ludvigsson et al. (2013) deﬁned NCGS as follows: one or more of a variety of immunological, morphological, or symptomatic manifestations that are precipitated by the ingestion of gluten in individuals in whom CD has been excluded. However, despite the word “gluten” in the currently most cited deﬁnition “NCGS,” it is far from certain that the gluten is the (main) cause of the symptoms observed. The more recent term “NCWS” was adopted since it was noted that gluten (NCGS) may not be the real cause (Biesiekierski, Peters, et al., 2013; Skodje et al., 2018). For that reason, we will use the term NCWS as most appropriate in the remainder of this article.
What are antinutrients?
“Antinutritional or antinutrient compounds are natural or synthetic substances that interfere with the metabolism and absorption of nutrients. They are present both in plant organisms, where they perform structural, reserve or defense functions against any predators, and in animal organisms (e.g. toxins and biological amines present in molluscs or fish, in milk derivatives and in wine). They can also form from degradation, cooking (e.g. heterocyclic amines of cooked meats) or food preservation processes, or be present as environmental, microbial, fungal or xenobiotic contaminants (agrochemicals, hormones, etc.).
Gli antinutrienti possono essere classificati in base all’azione che svolgono:
• riducono la digestione proteica e l’utilizzazione delle proteine (es. inibitori della tripsina e della chimotripsina, lectine o emoagglutinine, composti fenolici, saponine);
• interferiscono con la digestione dei carboidrati (es. inibitori dell’amilasi, composti polifenolici, fattori di flautolenza);
• disturbano la digestione e l’azione dei sali minerali (glicosinolati, acido ossalico, acido fitico, gossipolo);
• inattivano le vitamine o causano un incremento del loro fabbisogno (antivitamine);
• producono un effetto tossico ( es. afla-tosine, nitrati);
• stimolano il sistema immunitario (istamina, antigeni).
Omega gliadins, especially omega-5 thermostable gliadin, are responsible for wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, WDEIA, which is wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, mainly prevalent among adults.
“Wheat [Triticum aestivum (T.a.)] ingestion can cause a specific allergic reaction, which is called wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The major allergen involved is ω-5 gliadin, a gluten protein coded by genes located on the B genome. Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of proteins in Triticum monococcum (einkorn, T.m.), a diploid ancestral wheat lacking B chromosomes, for possible use in the production of hypoallergenic foods. A total of 14 patients with a clear history of WDEIA and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ω-5 gliadin were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) with a commercial wheat extract and an in-house T.a. gluten diagnostic solution tested positive for 43 and 100% of the cases, respectively. No reactivity in patients tested with solutions prepared from four T.m. accessions was observed. The immunoblotting of T.m. gluten proteins performed with the sera of patients showed different IgE-binding profiles with respect to T.a., confirming the absence of ω-5 gliadin. A general lower immunoreactivity of T.m. gluten proteins with scarce cross-reactivity to ω-5 gliadin epitopes was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the absence of reactivity by SPT and the limited cross-reactivity with ω-5 gliadin, T.m. might represent a potential candidate in the production of hypoallergenic bakery products for patients sensitized to ω-5 gliadin. Further analyses need to be carried out regarding its safety”. Study on the Immunoreactivity of Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Wheat in Patients with Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis for the Production of Hypoallergenic Foods. Lombardo Cet altri J Agric Food Chem. 2015