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Dough properties and baking performance of einkorn flour

by luciano

The presence or absence of specific proteins, the quantities of gluten proteins and the ratios of gliadins to glutenins or of gluten protein types determine the dough properties and baking performance of flours [1] and these characteristics can be very different, in terms of quality and quantity, according to the accessions.

Highlights from scientific literature:

Einkorn lines may have strongly different contents of protein even under the same growing conditions [2]
Einkorn flours have a relatively high contents of total gliadins when compared to the contents of glutenins. The content of gliadins or glutenins can also doubles between different accessions.
The ratio of gliadins to glutenins it can also triples between different accessions.
The α-gliadins were more abundant than γ-gliadins: they can also be double that of γ-gliadins.
The contents of ω5-gliadins is very hgh for einkorn compared to common wheat. The quantity of ω5-gliadins can also triples between different accessions. In accession ID331 the ω5-gliadins are absent.
In einkorn flours HMW-GS present a very low contents compared to common wheat. HMW-GS proteins can also double between different accessions.
LMW-GS are the protein type most present in the glutenin fractions. LMW-GS proteins can also double down between different accessions.
The influence of the genotype on the proportions of gliadins, glutenins and the different gluten protein types with respect to total protein can be very strong. Gliadins represent the 80-94% of total gluten proteins, glutenins represent the 6-20% of total gluten proteins.
HMWGS, essential for creating the network of gluten polymers [21], are far lower in quantity than common wheat. Their quantity can also be about 4% lower.

These characteristics (strongly affected by the genotype [4]) are decisively reflected on the rheological characteristics, clearly influencing:
• the formation of the dough which has very low stability (dough development time was negatively correlated with the ratio of gliadins to glutenins and positively with the content of glutenins) and a poor ability to rise (due to the weakness of the glutinic network which has a generally very limited ability to expand).
• The final result: loaf form, crumb structure, and bread volume (mainly dependent on the content of HMW glutenins; and not very sensitive to the ratio gliadins to glutenins)

  • However, there are also genotypes with an excellent aptitude for baking (Saponaro et al., 1995; Borghi et al., 1996)

• Einkorn gluten has a high gas retention capacity and a low water retention capacity (D’Egidio et al. 1993)
• Doughs prepared from einkorn flour also exhibit lower mixograph characteristics and are sticky and difficult to handle mechanically (Yamashita et al. 1957)
• Einkorn grain has a very soft texture (Pogna et al. 2002)
• In contrast to common wheat, the bread quality of einkorn flour is not influenced by the content of total gluten proteins, whereas other parameters such as glutenin content and the ratio of gliadins to glutenins are as important as for common wheat [5].

From the “Studies on the protein composition and baking quality of einkorn lines Herbert Wieser · Karl-Josef Mueller · Peter Koehler”
“The absence of a group of γ-gliadins at the beginning of the γ-gliadin elution region was unique for einkorn compared to all other wheat species. “
Questa caratteristica ne permette la classificazione in quattro gruppi, ulteriore sottodivisione è possibile analizzando il numero di ω5-gliadine presenti e le subunità delle glutenine a basso peso molecolare.

1. Kieffer R, Wieser H, Henderson MH, Graveland A (1998) J Cereal Sci 27:53–60
2. Brandolini A, Hidalgo A, Moscaritolo S (2008) J Cereal Sci 47:599–609
3. Wieser H, Bushuk W, MacRitchie F (2006) In: Wrigley C, Bekes F, Bushuk W (eds) Gliadin and glutenin—the unique balance of wheat quality. AACC International, St. Paul, pp 213–240
4. Borghi B, Castagna R, Corbellini M, Heun M, Salamini F (1996) Cereal Chem 73:208–214
5. Abdel-Aal E-SM, Hucl P, Sosulski FW, Bhirud PR (1997) J Cereal Sci 26:363–370

Keywords: einkorn dough properties; einkorn baking performance; gliadins; glutenins; ratio of gliadins to glutenins; α-gliadins; γ-gliadins; ω5-gliadins; einkorn dough development time; einkorn loaf form; einkorn crumb structure, einkorn bread volumes and HMW glutenins; high einkorn gas retention capacity; einkorn low water retention capacity; einkorn handle mechanically difficult; sticky einkorn doughs; einkorn low mixograph characteristics

Coronavirus: from darkness to light

by luciano

A necessary reflection in a moment that will change us all.

The second Italian Renaissance

Italy, all of Europe will not be as it is now after the coronavirus. Not only will the economic-financial vision not be, it cannot be the same but, before that, the collective conscience of society will not be the same. 
The virus is producing significant changes in the perception of the values, society and, above all, in the perception of the economy element as the only regulatory index of people’s lives. 
 Globalization had long since begun to show its macroscopic limits either for commercial interests, for needs of pre-eminence of power, or for difference in the evaluation of the basic value, that constitute 
the foundations of each society, first of all the environment and the concept of freedom. Globalization is now in crisis.
It can be the epochal turning point that allows us to get out of the decadence in which our society is, from the torpor of the pseudo well-being that we achieved in the last twenty years. 
Well-being largely compromised by the expiration of the social values that create the cohesion of a society, make it strong, allow you to move in a single direction and achieve a single purpose 
even if respecting a necessary pluralistic vision.
Now a part of us is facing the primary need of the health emergency and providing all the support for society to overcome these difficult moments. 
It is also time to prepare the projects for the house that we will build past the darkness otherwise when rebirth will be possible we will be unprepared and without tools.
It’s time to imagine the world we would like later, it’s time to give life to the second Italian Renaissance: while our doctors, nurses and all paramedical staff fight to eradicate the virus the best minds we have 
in the economic-financial field and socio-political should begin to implement the project that will allow us to leave immediately after the storm with clear and feasible ideas. 
The project must involve all social partners and citizens: the Italy vessel, now in the storm, must have and follow a new route, motivating both the sailors who govern the ship and the “inhabitants” of the Italy vessel.
The timeliness and effectiveness of the recovery depend on the ability to imagine our future and to foresee the tools necessary to implement it. 
Essential premise for the project to start once the darkness is over and that now and immediately those activities that if “die” will now no longer rise again and in the same way 
support will be created for people who can be “alive” for the rebirth .
The launch of the project will be perceived by citizens as a light indicating a path in the darkness and their involvement will create a “strong sense of belonging”, a prerequisite for a new society 
no longer based solely on money and the self. 
From Italy to all peoples.
Sangiorgio Luciano, Roma Italia


Einkorn and protein composition

by luciano

Presentation of the study of Dt. K.J. Mueller et al. : Studies on the protein composition and baking quality of einkorn lines (2006).
The study analyzes the quantitative and qualitative composition of the proteins of 24 monococcus wheat cultivars. The study is interesting in that it highlighted the possibility of classifying monococcal accessions through the presence of γ gliadins. “The absence of a group of γ-gliadins at the beginning of the γ-gliadin elution region was unique for einkorn compared to all other wheat species. ” This feature allows it to be classified into four groups, further subdivision is possible by analyzing the number of ω5-gliadins present and the subunits of high molecular weight glutenins. In addition, the identification of the individual gluten proteins, their subgroups and the relationship between the components highlights the significant differences with the spelt flour and soft wheat and highlights the characteristics that make the einkorn wheat flour less performing for the production of salted bakery products (bread). More details in: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226901132_Studies_on_the_protein_composition_and_baking_quality_of_einkorn_lines

Einkor wheat bread 100%: the strength of gluten makes the difference

by luciano

The aim of the study
The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of gluten strength of the same genotype (equal genetic imprinting) but with different cultivation on the final volume of bread.

Two loaves were made with two einkorn wheat flours which are completely identical in quantity of ingredients and methods of execution. Both flours used belong to the einkorn genotype type ID331; one (A) grown without any fertilizer or other chemical compounds, the other (B) grown with the supply of nitrogen.
Both loaves were prepared with the same method:
“New Method for making fermented bakery products n. EP 3305078B1: at the bottom of https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/09/27/einkorn-bread100/”.
The result clearly shows how the strength of gluten (1) played a decisive role in giving bread (B) a higher volume, a more open and regular crumb (Photo NN. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8).
It is known that the supply of nitrogen contributes to increasing both the quantity and strength of gluten (2). This was a decisive factor for the development of agrotechnics which allowed flour to be produced with better workability from an industrial point of view; the increase in the strength of gluten, however, led in parallel to a less digestible (3) and less tolerable (4) gluten.

Dietary Triggers in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Is There a Role for Gluten?

by luciano

A very important study that highlights the superimposition of the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome with those generated by the sensitivity to non-celiac gluten, by the ATI and by Fodmaps.

“A tight link exists between dietary factors and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most common functional syndromes, characterized by abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating and alternating bowel habits. Amongst the variety of foods potentially evoking “food sensitivity”, gluten and other wheat proteins including amylase trypsin inhibitors represent the culprits that recently have drawn the attention of the scientific community. Therefore, a newly emerging condition termed non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or nonceliac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) is now well established in the clinical practice. Notably, patients with NCGS/NCWS have symptoms that mimic those present in IBS. The mechanisms by which gluten or other wheat proteins trigger symptoms are poorly understood and the lack of specific biomarkers hampers diagnosis of this condition. The present review aimed at providing an update to physicians and scientists regarding the following main topics: the experimental and clinical evidence on the role of gluten/wheat in IBS; how to diagnose patients with functional symptoms attributable to gluten/wheat sensitivity; the importance of double-blind placebo controlled cross-over trials as confirmatory assays of gluten/wheat sensitivity; and finally, dietary measures for gluten/wheat sensitive patients. The analysis of current evidence proposes that gluten/wheat sensitivity can indeed represent a subset of the broad spectrum of patients with a clinical presentation of IBS. (J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2016;22:547-557). Umberto Volta, Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez et al.

Extrac from the study:
…..omissis. Experimental Evidence for a Role of Wheat Components in Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain how gluten may trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in the absence of celiac disease (Figure).

In vitro studies have demonstrated that digests of gliadin increase the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes and dendritic cells (40,57,58). Certain “toxic” (that only stimulates the innate immune response) gliadin-derived peptides such as the 31-43mer, may evoke epithelial cell dysfunction, increased IL-15 production and enterocyte apoptosis (59). Recent studies have demonstrated increased expression of TLR-2 in the intestinal mucosa of non-celiac compared to celiac patients, suggesting a role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of non-celiac reactions to gluten or other wheat components (49). Other studies have shown that monocytes from HLA-DQ2+ non-celiac individuals spontaneously release 2-3 fold more IL-8 than monocytes from HLA-DQ2 negative patients. This suggests that patients without celiac disease (no enteropathy and negative specific serology), but with positive HLA-DQ2 status, may represent a subpopulation reacting mildly to gluten (60). In terms of gut dysfunction, gluten sensitization in mice has been shown to induce acetylcholine release, one of the main excitatory neurotransmitters in the gut, from the myenteric plexus (57).
This correlates with increased smooth muscle contractility and a hypersecretory status with increased ion transport and water movements (57). These functional effects induced by gluten were not accompanied by mucosal atrophy, and were not observed after sensitization with non-gluten proteins. Interestingly gluten-induced gut dysfunction was particularly notable in mice transgenic for the human celiac gene HLA-DQ8 (57).
ATIs, a group of wheat proteins that confer resistance of the grain to pests, are strong inducers of innate immune responses via TLR4 and via the myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and -independent pathway (40). This activation occurs both in vitro and in vivo after oral ingestion of purified ATIs or gluten, while gluten-free cereals display no or minimal activities (61). The role of ATIs in IBS is not yet known, however there is clear description of a mechanism that could be involved in the generation of gut dysfunction and symptoms. These mechanisms are different from those proposed for gluten and thus it is conceivable that they could co-exist in given patients or have a synergistic effect.