Header Image - Gluten Light


Cutaneous Manifestations of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity

by luciano

Cutaneous Manifestations of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: Clinical Histological and Immunopathological Features
Veronica Bonciolini, Beatrice Bianchi, Elena Del Bianco, Alice Verdelli, and Marzia Caproni
Background: The dermatological manifestations associated with intestinal diseases are becoming more frequent, especially now when new clinical entities, such as Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS), are identified. The existence of this new entity is still debated. However, many patients with diagnosed NCGS that present intestinal manifestations have skin lesions that need appropriate characterization. Methods: We involved 17 patients affected by NCGS with non-specific cutaneous manifestations who got much better after a gluten free diet. For a histopathological and immunopathological evaluation, two skin samples from each patient and their clinical data were collected. Results: The median age of the 17 enrolled patients affected by NCGS was 36 years and 76% of them were females. On the extensor surfaces of upper and lower limbs in particular, they all presented very itchy dermatological manifestations morphologically similar to eczema, psoriasis or dermatitis herpetiformis. This similarity was also confirmed histologically, but the immunopathological analysis showed the prevalence of deposits of C3 along the dermo-epidermal junction with a microgranular/granular pattern (82%). Conclusions: The exact characterization of new clinical entities such as Cutaneous Gluten Sensitivity and NCGS is an important objective both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, since these are patients who actually benefit from a GFD (Gluten Free Diet) and who do not adopt it only for fashion.
….omissis: 5.

At the moment, the results of our study do not allow the exact characterization of a new skin disease related to NCGS. The skin lesions observed were similar both to eczema and psoriasis and did not show a specific histological pattern. Furthermore, no serological marker was useful to identify these patients. The only data common to most of these patients affected by NCGS associated to non-specific skin manifestations are:
1. the itching;
2. the presence of C3 at the dermoepidermal junction;
3. a rapid resolution of lesions when adopting the gluten free diet.”

From: Nutrients. 2015 Sep; 7(9): 7798–7805. Published online 2015 Sep 15. doi:10.3390/nu7095368


Semi-wholemeal einkorn wheat flour bread 09-12-2021

by luciano

The test was carried out with the same method illustrated several times on the site (1):
Preferment (sponge) (2): semi-wholemeal einkorn wheat flour (passing through a 600 micron sieve), sourdough in liquid form of einkorn wheat (same as the dough), brewer’s yeast in very limited quantities as a starter, water.

Final dough: preferment, einkorn wheat flour (passing through a 600 micron sieve), sourdough in liquid form of einkorn wheat (same as the dough), brewer’s yeast in very limited quantities as a starter, extra virgin olive oil, malt, salt, water.
We obtained a very fragrant bread, with an accentuated flavor of wheat, but above all with an excellent texture and very digestible.
The long maturation with the sourdough (always made with the some einkorn wheat) has allowed us to achieve these results.
The hydrolysis of gluten by the sourdough is clearly visible in Photo n. 1: after the very long cold maturation (5 degrees) and the subsequent heating up to 19-20 degrees, the dough has an underdeveloped, indeed “deteriorated” gluten network. The formation of the “loaf” or “roll” with the usual technique is not possible, the dough does not lend itself to “modeling”. A ball or roll is therefore made for final proof in a basket (Photo N. 2). Photo No. 3 shows the dough at the end of leavening ready for the oven; the surface does not appear homogeneous or elastic. The result Photo NN. 4 and 5 show the success of the test and above all the photos NN. 6, 7, 8, 9 are tangible proof of the excellent result of the texture which presents a disordered crumb in the distribution of the holes but definitely present: the bread is not compact at all. Looking at the state of the dough (Photo N.1) it would not seem possible to obtain the result shown in photo n9!.

Photo n. 1

Einkorn wheat flour dough

by luciano

The dough for bread with einkorn wheat presents some difficulties due both to the fact that it is low in gluten and, above all, because it is a weak gluten that develops a limited gluten network.
We publish a video of the behavior of the phase in which a final dough * for bread with einkorn wheat is worked with a “fork” type mixer, contrasting it with a final dough made with other wheat (Timilia).
The difference in the behavior of the two different doughs is substantial.

Both doughs were made with the same method:

Einkorn wheat pre-dough: einkorn wheat flour, sourdough in liquid form of einkorn wheat (same as the dough), very limited quantities of brewer’s yeast as a starter, water.

Final dough of einkorn wheat: pre-dough, einkorn wheat flour, sourdough in liquid form of einkorn wheat (same as the dough), brewer’s yeast in very limited quantities as a starter, extra virgin olive oil, malt, salt, water.

Timilia wheat pre-dough: Timilia wheat flour, sourdough in liquid form of einkorn wheat (the same as the previous dough), very limited quantities of brewer’s yeast as a starter, water.

Final dough of Timilia wheat: pre-dough, Timilia wheat flour, sourdough in liquid form of monococcus wheat (the same as the previous dough), brewer’s yeast in very limited quantities as a starter, extra virgin olive oil, malt, salt, water.

NO additives or improvers were used.
Both flours were of the semi-wholemeal type (passing 600 microns sieve ).

The videos show how the Timilia wheat mixture is more homogeneous and “formable” and less “sticky” than the other. The difference is due to the different gluten: the more “performing” one generated by Timilia wheat. From the two videos it is possible to see the traces that the einkorn wheat mixture leaves in the mixer (further documented by photo “A”) absent in the case of the Timilia wheat.

Einkorn flour will never give easy, homogeneous elastic doughs unless the einkorn has been “domesticated”, for example with nitrogen fertilizers.

Video about Einkorn: https://youtu.be/Wugt9OrbMzQ

Video about “Timilia” : https://youtu.be/LYcnmdNtuxU

Photo “A”

Einkorn: christmas spells

by luciano

(for a finally normal 2021!)
A test for the realization of a very particular product: the carasau bread (puff bread) of pure einkorn wheat. A not easy realization considering the rheological characteristics of the einkorn wheat: little gluten and also weak. The dough has very little elasticity and cannot be manipulated for long because the gluten network breaks down. Method chosen: this test was carried out using the method (increasing the quantity of the pre-ferment) of the pre-ferment followed by the final dough already used for the bread.
Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – of a a retarder prover. Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour (a flour through a 600 micron sieve), stone-ground flour, produced by “I grani di Atlantide” di Lorenzo Moi” 2019 harvest.
The “W” index of this flour is modest, placing itself below the value of 50. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). The method is for expert people”.

Idratation 55% 900 =545gr. (500gr. wtater + LiCoLi whater 45gr. )

ATI (Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors) (Second part)

by luciano

Anti nutritional factors in cereals, especially amylase trypsin inhibitors, affecting digestibility.
“Anti nutritional factors (ANF) play an important role in cereals to protect against infestation and animal consumption. From an agronomic point of view these pest barriers are beneficial as the required pest control measures (chemical pesticides, storage facilities) is relatively limited.
From a health point of view a large group of ANF, the ATI are of special interest as they may impact digestion in multiple ways, e.g. they:
• can reduce digestibility of food directly by inhibition of enzymes from the digestive tract (human and microbiome; Weegels 1994),
• can increase the load of allergenic peptide presented to the small intestine, thus (così) increasing the allergenic and inflammation reactions (Junker et al. 2012; Zevallos et al 2014)
• complexation  behavior may strongly interact with the small intestine epithelium that can cause inflammation by itself (Zevallos et al 2014)
• are the not yet completely understood cause of Bakers asthma (asma), the major labour related allergy (Stobnicka and Górny, 2015)
• can increase the load of non digested peptides and carbohydrates especially of non-starch polysaccharides (FODMAPS) that are a major cause of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) which affects 7% to 21% of the general population (Chey et al 2015)
• may impact the microbiome itself. This is not established in detail
From a food processing point of view ATI’s play a negative role as they inhibit enzymes that are added as processing aids for improved processing and bread quality. This reduces processing effectiveness and quality control of cereal based products.
Understanding the role of ATI in cereals food processing and food digestion and mitigation of the negative effects is therefor (perciò) of prime importance for food safety, security and sustainability.
An interesting way to mitigate the effect of ATI could be by altering its molecular structure that is stabilised by the large number of disulphide bonds (5-6 on ca. 14 kDa; Buchanan et al 1997)”. “https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Chair-groups/Agrotechnology-and-Food-Sciences/Laboratory-of-Food-Chemistry/Research/Themes/Technology-of-cereal-foods-digestibility.htm”