The main problem of gluten-free products is to create a protein network within the ﬂour proteins so that final products met the consumer’s expectations concerning texture and appearance of the fresh bread.
To achieve this purpose they are used:
1. hydrocolloids for building an internal network able to hold the structure of fermented products;
2. diﬀerent crosslinking enzymes such as glucose oxidase (1), transglutaminase and laccase to create a protein network within the ﬂour proteins.
A – Extract from: “Gluten-Free Products for Celiac Susceptible People. Sweta Rai, Amarjeet Kaur and C. S. Chopra. “
TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR MIMING GLUTEN IN GLUTEN-FREE BAKERY PRODUCTS
The formulation of gluten-free bakery products is still a challenge to both for cereal-cum-baking technologists. Replacing gluten functionality has been a challenge for food technologists. The absence of gluten leads to weak cohesion and elastic doughs which results in a crumbling texture, poor color, and low speciﬁc volume in bread. Hence, during the last few years, numerous studies have been attempted for improving the physical properties of gluten-free foods, especially baked and fermented foods, by utilizing the interaction of the many ingredients and additives which could mimic the property of gluten (28). Approaches proposed for obtaining gluten-free baked foods include the utilization of diﬀerent naturally gluten-free ﬂours (rice, maize, sorghum, soy, buckwheat) and starches (maize, potato, cassava, rice), dairy ingredients (caseinate, skim milk powder, dry milk, whey), gums and hydrocolloids (guar and xanthan gums, alginate, carrageenan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose), emulsiﬁers (DATEM, SSL, lecithins), non-gluten proteins from milk, eggs, legumes and pulses, enzymes (cyclodextrin glycosyl tranferases, transglutaminase, proteases, glucose oxidase, laccase), and non-starch polysaccharides (inulin, galactooligosaccharides) (Table 1). Strengthening additives or processing aids has been fundamental for miming gluten’s iscoelastic properties (93), where mainly hydrocolloids have been used for building an internal network able to hold the structure of fermented products. Simultaneously with the same intention, diﬀerent crosslinking enzymes such as glucose oxidase, transglutaminase, and laccase have been used to create a protein network within the ﬂour proteins (94). However, the success of gluten-free products relied on the type of eﬀect of the enzymes as gluten-free processing aids, type of ﬂour, enzyme source, and level. Generally, the combinations of ingredients and the optimization of the breadmaking process have resolved the technological problems, yielding gluten-free products that met the consumer’s expectations concerning texture and appearance of the fresh bread (95).