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Monococcum wheat (einkorn wheat): why it is so important

by luciano

Summary of the main characteristics of the monococcum wheat (einkorn) which give it great potential to be used for the preparation of bakery products but also sweet ones for people who:
1. are genetically predisposed for celiac disease (1) (2) (3) (4) (5),
2. must keep the glycemic index under control (6),
3. are non-celiac gluten sensitive, reintroduce gluten after its exclusion (7),
4. have difficulty digesting gluten (8).
5. are sensitive to ATI -amylase trypsina inhibitors-. (9)
6. Also worthy of note is the high nutritional qualities of monococcus wheat (einkorn) (10)
(1)- Immunogenicity of monococcum wheat in celiac patients
………..omissis. “Conclusions: Our data show that the monococcum lines Monlis and ID331 activate the CD T cell response and suggest that these lines are toxic for celiac patients. However, ID331 is likely to be less effective in inducing CD because of its inability to activate the innate immune pathways”. Immunogenicity of monococcum wheat in celiac patients. Carmen Gianfrani et altri. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:1339–45.

(2) ………omissis. “D’altra parte, tenuto conto che l’incidenza e la gravità della celiachia dipende dalla quantità e dalla nocività delle prolamine e che alcuni genotipi di grano monococco hanno una elevata qualità panificatoria accoppiata con assenza di citotossicità e ridotta immunogenicità, è atteso che l’uso delle farine di monococco nella dieta della popolazione generale, all’interno della quale si trova una elevata percentuale di individui predisposti geneticamente alla celiachia ma non ancora celiaci, possa contribuire a contenere la diffusione di questa forma di intolleranza alimentare. Ciò lascia pensare che il grano monococco, riportato recentemente in coltivazione in Italia dai ricercatori del Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA) di Roma e San Angelo Lodigiano, potrà svolgere un ruolo importante nella prevenzione della celiachia, sia direttamente sotto forma di pane e pasta sia indirettamente come specie modello per lo studio del ruolo dell’immunità innata nell’insorgenza della celiachia”. Le nuove frontiere delle tecnologie alimentari e la celiachia Norberto Pogna, Laura Gazza (2013).

(3)-Extensive in vitro gastrointestinal digestion markedly reduces the immune-toxicity of Triticum monococcum wheat: Implication for celiac disease
Carmen Gianfrani, Alessandra Camarca, Giuseppe Mazzarella, Luigia Di Stasio, Nicola Giardullo, Pasquale Ferranti, Gianluca Picariello, Vera Rotondi Aufiero, Stefania Picascia, Riccardo Troncone, Norberto Pogna, Salvatore Auricchio
and Gianfranco Mamone. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2015, 00, 1–11
Scope: The ancient diploid Triticum monococcum is of special interest as a candidate low-toxic wheat species for celiac disease patients. Here, we investigated how an in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion, affected the immune toxic properties of gliadin from diploid compared to hexaploid wheat.
Method and results: Gliadins from Triticum monococcum, and Triticum aestivum cultivars were digested using either a partial proteolysis with pepsin-chymotrypsin, or an extensive degradation that used gastrointestinal enzymes including the brush border membrane enzymes. The immune stimulatory properties of the digested samples were investigated on T-cell lines and jejunal biopsies from celiac disease patients. The T-cell response profile to the Triticum mono coccum gliadin was comparable to that obtained with Triticum aestivum gliadin after the partial pepsin-chymotrypsin digestion. In contrast, the extensive gastrointestinal hydrolysis drastically reduced the immune stimulatory properties of Triticum monococcum gliadin. MS-based analy- sis showed that several Triticum monococcum peptides, including known T-cell epitopes, were degraded during the gastrointestinal treatment, whereas many of Triticum aestivum gliadin survived the gastrointestinal digestion.
Conclusion: he pattern of Triticum monococcum gliadin proteins is sufficiently different from those of common hexaploid wheat to determine a lower toxicity in celiac disease patients following in vitro simulation of human digestion.

High glycemic index of gluten-free products

by luciano

“In formulating Gluten Free products, therefore, the first problem to be solved is the absence of the protein network on which to build the product. This deficiency affects the structure of the product both in terms of volume and organoleptic level. The formulations are based mainly on mixtures of starches and substances that act as “glue” and often have a strong nutritional imbalance, ie a strong fiber deficiency and a high glycemic index. The Glycemic Index clarifies how quickly the ingested carbohydrate is demolished, absorbed and released into the bloodstream as an energy source for the cells. Foods with low Glycemic Index release energy in a prolonged way, constantly and allow to avoid the feeling of hunger a few hours after a meal. Foods with high Glycemic Index release energy in the form of glucose very quickly with the result that the feeling of hunger is not slow to be felt and the excess glucose is transformed into fat storage. In the report “Glycemic Index and Gluten Free Products” by Dr. Alessandra Bosetti, clinical dietician at the Sacco hospital, the need to reconsider the characteristics of the dieto-therapeutic products to improve their glycemic index and nutritional adequacy emerge . In the various baked products there is also a series of organoleptic defects summarized here:

• Biscuits: lack of bite consistency, too hard structure or excess of sand, lack of taste persistence;
• Baked cakes: no volume, they dry quickly, gumminess, lack of taste, unbalanced nutritional profile;
• Bread, pizza: it lacks volume, it lacks elasticity in the crumb, poorly homogeneous crumb, gumminess, unbalanced nutritional profile.

In the different formulations corn flours, rice, quinoa, buckwheat are used, to which are added amides with structuring or emulsifying function and hydrocolloids. The latter have the important function of absorbing and retaining the water of the mixture and during cooking to create a gelatinized starch containment mesh. The main hydrocolloids used include guar gum, xanthan, carrageenan and hydroxymethylcellulose. To make the best use of these products, it is advisable to use hot water or long resting times that allow optimal hydration of the fibers. Still little has been studied on kneading machines: the spiral kneader the fork or the diving arms are the least suitable when there is no gluten to be formed or oriented. Normally planetary mixers are used to have the best hydration of the different components; moreover, if they allow an optimal oxidation of the dough, the mesh formed by rubbers and starches shows a better resistance and functionality. ” From: https://www.sigmasrl.com/it/blog/im purchased-del-gluten-free