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Einkorn bread100% (suitable for people sensitive to gluten / wheat not celiac)

by luciano

Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of enkir wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/) For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.

In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)

 Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).

Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.

 You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation: the use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread. A first step we do using a simplified version (direct method) of the a new industrial method  (1) that involves the construction of the pre-ferment followed by the final dough. Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – a retarder prover with controlled temperature and humidity.

Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour, stone-ground. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). Further clarification: the method is for expert people.

Method – recipe

Einkorn, emmer and durum wheat

by luciano

Einkorn, emmer and durum wheat: they do not have the “33mer” fraction considered the most active in activating the adverse response of the immune system in celiac subjects. Also for this reason they are the most suitable genotypes for the researches whose aim is to “detoxify” the flours or to intervene with particular enzymes to hydrolyse the “toxic peptides”, however present; they are also more suitable for non-celiac gluten sensitive subjects.

“Quantitation of the immunodominant 33-mer peptide from α-gliadin in wheat flours by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Kathrin Schalk , Christina Lang , Herbert Wieser , Peter Koehler  & Katharina Anne Scherf. Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 45092 (2017)


Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. The 33-mer peptide from α2-gliadin has frequently been described as the most important CD-immunogenic sequence within gluten. However, from more than 890 published amino acid sequences of α-gliadins, only 19 sequences contain the 33-mer. In order to make a precise assessment of the importance of the 33-mer, it is necessary to elucidate which wheat species and cultivars contain the peptide and at which concentrations. This paper presents the development of a stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantitate the 33-mer in flours of 23 hexaploid modern and 15 old common (bread) wheat as well as two spelt cultivars. All flours contained the 33-mer peptide at levels ranging from 91–603 μg/g flour. In contrast, the 33-mer was absent (<limit of detection) from tetra- and diploid species (durum wheat, emmer, einkorn), most likely because of the absence of the D-genome, which encodes α2-gliadins. Due to the presence of the 33-mer in all common wheat and spelt flours analysed here, the special focus in the literature on this most immunodominant peptide seems to be justified……Omissis…..

Analysis of durum wheat, emmer and einkorn

The 33-mer peptide was also analysed in two durum wheat and two emmer cultivars (genome AABB) as well as two diploid einkorn cultivars (genome AA) (Table 1). In each of these wheat species, the 33-mer was not detected (<LOD). In comparison to hexaploid common wheat, durum wheat, emmer, and einkorn do not contain the D-genome, which originated from hybridisation of T. turgidum dicoccum (genome AABB) with Aegilops tauschii (genome DD)36. The absence of the 33-mer peptide can be explained by the fact that this peptide is encoded by genes located in the Gli-2 locus on chromosome 6D, which is missing in durum wheat, emmer, and einkorn. Studies by Molberg et al. showed clear variations in intestinal T-cell responses between common wheat and tetra- or diploid species due to different degrees of T-cell immunoreactivity between the gluten proteins encoded on the A-, B-, and D-genome. Einkorn cultivars were only recognized by DQ2.5-glia-α1a-specific T-cell clones, but not by DQ2.5-glia-α1b- and DQ2.5-glia-α2-specific T-cell clones. Emmer and durum wheat cultivars were all recognized by DQ2.5-glia-α1a-specific T-cell clones, but only two out of four emmer cultivars and three out of ten durum wheat cultivars activated DQ2.5-glia-α1b- and DQ2.5-glia-α2-specific T-cell clones37. Consistent with our results, Prandi et al.38 found that the 33-mer was not present in durum wheat. As a consequence, this peptide was used as a marker peptide to identify the presence of common wheat in durum wheat flours. One durum wheat cultivar was also analysed by van den Broeck et al.33 and the 33-mer peptide was not detected either”. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.it