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Einkorn bread100% (suitable for people sensitive to gluten / wheat not celiac)

by luciano

Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of enkir wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/) For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.

In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)

 Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).

Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.

 You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation: the use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread. A first step we do using a simplified version (direct method) of the a new industrial method  (1) that involves the construction of the pre-ferment followed by the final dough. Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – a retarder prover with controlled temperature and humidity.

Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour, stone-ground. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). Further clarification: the method is for expert people.

Method – recipe

Monococcum Wheat (einkorn)

by luciano

Monococcus wheat protein content, on average 15-18%, is higher than that of other cultivated cereals and has a nutritional value higher than that of common wheat and durum wheat. The studies carried out at the Research Unit for the Qualitative Valorisation of Cereals of the Council for Research and Experimentation in Agriculture (CRA-QCE) in the last ten years have allowed to identify many peculiar and nutritionally interesting aspects of the monococcus wheat. Among the characteristics that make it unique in the field of straw cereals we have (i) the high content of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A and natural antioxidants, which is about 5 times that of soft wheat; (ii) the excellent availability of tocoli (vitamin E), which is about 50% greater than durum wheat and soft wheat; (iii) the high content in lipids (about 50% more than common wheat), with a clear prevalence of unsaturated fatty acids; (iv) the high percentage in ash and the high content in minerals (particularly interesting are zinc, iron and phosphorus) and (v) a content in fruits about 50-70% greater than soft wheat (Hidalgo and Brandolini, 2008) ). The monococcus wheat flour, almost impalpable, has a characteristic yellow color and is excellent for the production of biscuits, snakes, flakes and other bakery products (Brandolini et al., 2008; Pollini et al., 2013); there are also genotypes with an excellent attitude to bread-making (Saponaro et al., 1995; Borghi et al., 1996). Also the pastification quality is very high, both in terms of workability of the raw material and of the quality of the finished product: the spaghetti and the monococco wheat macaroni have a good resistance to cooking and a reduced loss of starch compared to those based on commercial groats. of durum wheat (Brandolini et al., 2008). Moreover T. monococcum possesses small-sized (so-called B-type) starch granules in proportion to the cultivated wheats.

1. Tolerability of the monococcum wheat
2. More digestible starch in the monococcum wheat