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Einkorn Wheat and Intestinal Microbiota

by luciano

The state and health of the intestinal microbiota is at the center of many studies aimed at studying the role of the microbiota in diseases and how to intervene for preventive or curative purposes.
The set of microorganisms that populate our digestive system (microbiota) includes good bacterial strains but harmful ones can sometimes also be present. Indigenous strains (those that characterize our microbiota) hinder the colonization of the intestine by new microbes, including pathogenic ones. Vitamin K, for example, is synthesized by good bacteria present. Indigenous bacteria digest and ferment the favonoids contained in fruits and vegetables, promoting the production of substances that have protective effects on cardiovascular health. An essential function that our bacteria perform is to produce short-chain fatty acids, especially butyric acid. These acids protect the intestine from inflammation and the onset of tumors.
La ricerca “In Vivo Effects of Einkorn Wheat (Triticum monococcum) Bread on the Intestinal Microbiota, Metabolome, and on the Glycemic and Insulinemic Response in the Pig Model” ha questo tema come focus.
Abstract: “Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) is characterized by high content of proteins, bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, fructans, tocols, carotenoids, alkylresorcinols, and phytosterols, and lower α-, β -amylase and lipoxygenase activities compared to polyploid wheat. These features make einkorn flour a good candidate to provide healthier foods. In the present study, we investigated the effects of einkorn bread (EB) on the intestinal physiology and metabolism of the pig model by characterizing the glycemic and insulinemic response, and the microbiota and metabolome profiles. Sixteen commercial hybrid pigs were enrolled in the study; four pigs were used to characterize postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses and twelve pigs underwent a 30-day dietary intervention to assess microbiota and metabolome changes after EB or standard wheat bread (WB) consumption. The postprandial insulin rise after an EB meal was characterized by a lower absolute level, and, as also observed for glucose, by a biphasic shape in contrast to that in response to a WB meal. The consumption of EB led to enrichment in short-chain fatty acid producers (e.g., Blautia, Faecalibacterium, and Oscillospira) in the gut microbiota and to higher metabolic diversity with lower content of succinate, probably related to improved absorption and therefore promoting intestinal gluconeogenesis. The observed changes, at both a compositional and metabolic scale, strongly suggest that EB consumption may support a health-promoting configuration of the intestinal ecosystem.”


“Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) was one of the first crops domesticated approximately 12,000 years ago in the Near East, alongside emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum). Typically, einkorn was cultivated on marginal agricultural land, being able to survive in harsh environments and poor soils where other types of wheat could not survive. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta) represents a hexaploid series of the Triticum genome constitution, which is characterized by great adaptation to a wider range of environments [1]. When compared to polyploid wheats, it has a higher content of proteins and some well recognised bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, fructans, tocols, carotenoids, alkylresorcinols, phytosterols, and lower α-, β -amylase and lipoxygenase activities [2]. These compositional traits make einkorn flour a good candidate to provide healthier foods. Specifically, the presence of antioxidant compounds and the protein profile are expected to be related to reduced cardiovascular disease and hypoallergenic effects, respectively. In particular, einkorn was shown to express few T-cell stimulatory gluten peptides, with important implications for celiac disease [3]. In vitro digested einkorn breads evidenced their higher carotenoid level as compared to modern wheats and showed a greater anti-inflammatory effect than the control (wheat bread) in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells [4]. Given the crucial role of the gut microbiota in the metabolism of dietary compounds, including the bio-activation of plant polyphenols into health-promoting metabolites and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate) from fiber fermentation, as major orchestrators of the host physiology [5].”


“Specifically, for einkorn, one of the most representative ancient grains, in vitro results evidenced a good healthy potential because of its effects on blood concentrations of glucose and insulin with a view to using einkorn-based foods in metabolic diseases [7,8], but none has considered changes in the microbiota structure as well as in the intestinal repertoire of metabolites, potentially influencing multiple metabolic and immunological pathways that are relevant to host health. In an attempt to bridge this gap, here we explored the gut microbiota and metabolome of pigs fed with an einkorn versus wheat-based bread. “


Conclusions. “In summary, through the pig model we demonstrated a beneficial impact of EB on several aspects of the host physiology, including insulin release, fecal consistency, and microbiota and metabolome profiles, both in feces and intestinal contents. According to our findings, the consumption of EB could reduce the AUC of the first insulin peak, thus prolonging the sense of satiety. Moreover, it could modulate the intestinal ecosystem, at both the compositional and metabolic scale, towards a configuration specifically enriched in health-promoting bacteria and showing distinct metabolic signatures potentially contributing to maintaining the host homeostasis. The use of the pig model allowed, unlike in clinical human trials, the sampling of the mucosa and the content of the small intestine, thus widening the knowledge on the complexity of the food-microbiota-host interaction along the gastrointestinal tracts. The observed positive effects could be driven by the synergistic interaction of many factors, including, inter alia, the fermentation process, the food matrix, and the flour components, which result in gut-mediated effects. The evaluation of the beneficial effects of a real food is far more complex than using purified compounds, as a direct cause-effect relationship can seldom be ascribed to a single component. It is indeed foods, and not the single components, which create the diet, and exploring their complexity can better reflect their overall role on health. Although further studies and clinical trials are needed, the results that are herein reported represent a first contribution to unravel the anti-inflammatory potential of einkorn-based foods.”

“In Vivo Effects of Einkorn Wheat (Triticum monococcum) Bread on the Intestinal Microbiota, Metabolome, and on the Glycemic and Insulinemic Response in the Pig Model”. Francesca Barone et al. Nutrients 2019, 11, 16; doi:10.3390/nu11010016

A – Pigs have significant anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, particularly with regard to the intestinal structure, with comparable transit time and analogous digestive and absorptive processes [9,10]. Furthermore, like humans, they are true omnivores, unlike other potential mammalian models, such as dogs, cats, ruminants, rabbits, and rodents, which have evolutionarily developed alternative digestive strategies. Finally, both pigs and humans are colon fermenters and have similar colonic microbiota composition. All of these features make the pig one of the most important models in the field of nutrition [11,12]. Through the pig model, in the present study we investigated the impact of a 30-day nutritional intervention with einkorn or wheat bread on the intestinal ecosystem, by means of next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and metabolomics of fecal samples, as well as samples from ileal and colonic compartments. The effects of einkorn vs. wheat bread on animal physiology, blood parameters, postprandial glycemia, and insulin response were also evaluated.

B – The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample. The biological sample can be a cell, a cellular organelle, an organ, a tissue, a tissue extract, a biofluid or an entire organism. The small molecule chemicals found in a given metabolome may include both endogenous metabolites that are naturally produced by an organism (such as amino acids, organic acids, nucleic acids, fatty acids, amines, sugars, vitamins, co-factors, pigments, antibiotics, etc.) as well as exogenous chemicals (such as drugs, environmental contaminants, food additives, toxins and other xenobiotics) that are not naturally produced by an organism.
The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample. The biological sample can be a cell, a cellular organelle, an organ, a tissue, a tissue extract, a biofluid or an entire organism. The small molecule chemicals found in a given metabolome may include both endogenous metabolites that are naturally produced by an organism (such as amino acids, organic acids, nucleic acids, fatty acids, amines, sugars, vitamins, co-factors, pigments, antibiotics, etc.) as well as exogenous chemicals (such as drugs, environmental contaminants, food additives, toxins and other xenobiotics) that are not naturally produced by an organism.

Integrated Evaluation of the Potential Health Benefits of Einkorn-Based Breads: anti-inflammatory effect

by luciano

Einkorn-Based Breads: anti-inflammatory effect. (Fabiana Antognoni et al. Nutrients 11-11-2017)

Abstract: Nowadays the high nutritional value of whole grains is recognized, and there is an increasing interest in the ancient varieties for producing wholegrain food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics. Among ancient crops, einkorn could represent a valid alternative. In this work, einkorn flours were analyzed for their content in carotenoids and in free and bound phenolic acids, and compared to wheat flours. The most promising flours were used to produce conventional and sourdough fermented breads. Breads were in vitro digested, and characterized before and after digestion. The four breads having the best characteristics were selected, and the product of their digestion was used to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effect using Caco-2 cells. Our results confirm the higher carotenoid levels in einkorn than in modern wheats, and the effectiveness of sourdough fermentation in maintaining these levels, despite the longer exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Moreover, in cultured cells einkorn bread evidenced an anti-inflammatory effect, although masked by the effect of digestive fluid. This study represents the first integrated evaluation of the potential health benefit of einkorn-based bakery products compared to wheat-based ones, and contributes to our knowledge of ancient grains.

Several studies have shown a clear correlation between the consumption of wholegrain and a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases [1,2], diabetes [3], and some types of cancer [4]. The beneficial properties of wholegrain are mainly ascribed to their micronutrient and phytochemical content [5–7]. Cereals are among the richest food in phenolic acids, their content being comparable with or even higher than that found in berries, fruits, and vegetables [8]. In addition, some cereals are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin [9,10]. Micronutrients and phytochemicals are chiefly concentrated in the outer layers of grains [11], and this could explain the preventive effects associated with high wholegrain consumption [12]. Nowadays, the higher nutritional value of wholegrain compared to refined ones is recognized [13], and there is an increasing interest in ancient crops as source of wholegrain flours [14].

Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) is an ancient crop. Compared to polyploid wheats it has a higher content of proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fructans, and phytochemicals as tocols, carotenoids, alkylresorcinols, phytosterols, and a lower α-, β-amylase and lipoxygenase activities [15]. In addition, einkorn expresses very few T-cell stimulatory gluten peptides [16]. Einkorn could represent a valid alternative for producing functional baked products.
In bakery, processing could contribute to functionality [17,18]. Sourdough fermentation, involving the inter-relation between microbial metabolism and cereal enzymes, has been shown to greatly affect the functional features of leavened baked goods [19]. This type of fermentation may produce new nutritionally active molecules such as functional peptides and amino acid derivatives [20,21], deriving from either the bacterial hydrolytic activity [20] or from their own synthetic pathways [22]. To exert a positive action in the human body, bioactive compounds must be hydrolyzed from the food matrix, and be absorbed in the intestine. The bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds, i.e., the percentage released from the food matrix and made available for uptake by the intestinal mucosa, is an important parameter that can be influenced by many different factors including the food matrix and the food processing [23,24]. Fermentation by lactic acid bacteria may improve nutrient bioaccessibility and produce compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity [19]. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria have been reported to release or synthesize antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides during fermentation of cereal flours [20].
In this work, different wheat and einkorn flours were analyzed for their content in carotenoids and phenolic acids. The richest in these functional compounds were selected, and used to bake breads with two different fermentation procedures (conventional and sourdough).
Breads were digested in vitro using a dynamic gastro-intestinal digestor, and characterized before and after digestion. Based on integrated results, four breads were selected, and the product of their intestinal digestion was supplemented to Caco-2 intestinal cells. Cells were exposed to inflammatory stress, and the effect of supplementation on different inflammation markers was assessed.
Overall, this study has evaluated how the type of flour and the type of fermentation can influence the nutritional features of bread, and the bioaccessibility and anti-inflammatory effects of its functional compounds. The combination of different results provides an integrated vision supporting the possible health benefits of einkorn-based bread.


1. Zong, G.; Gao, A.; Hu, F.B.; Sun, Q. Whole grain intake and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation 2016, 133, 2370–2380. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2. Aune, D.; Keum, N.; Giovannucci, E.; Fadnes, L.T.; Boffetta, P.; Greenwood, D.C.; Tonstad, S.; Vatten, L.J.; Riboli, E.; Norat, T. Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause specific mortality: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 2016, 353, i2716. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. Ye, E.Q.; Chacko, S.A.; Chou, E.L.; Kugizaki, M.; Liu, S. Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain. J. Nutr. 2012, 142, 1304–1313. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. Kyrø, C.; Skeie, G.; Loft, S.; Landberg, R.; Christensen, J.; Lund, E.; Nilsson, L.M.; Palmqvist, R.; Tjønneland, A.; Olsen, A. Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort. Cancer Causes Control 2013, 24, 1363–1374. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. Adom, K.K.; Liu, R.H. Antioxidant activity of grains. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 6182–6187. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. Adom, K.K.; Sorrells, M.E.; Liu, R.H. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of wheat varieties.

J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 7825–7834. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. Abdel-Aal, E.S.M.; Young, J.C.; Rabalski, I.; Hucl, P.; Frégeau-Reid, J. Identification and quantification of seed carotenoids in selected wheat species. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007, 55, 787–794. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8. Perez-Jimenez, J.; Neveu, V.; Vos, F.; Scalbert, A. Systematic analysis of the content of 502 polyphenols in 452 foods and beverages: An application of the Phenol−Explorer database. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010, 58, 4959–4969. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. Abdel-Aal, E.S.M.; Young, J.C.; Wood, P.J.; Rabalski, I.; Hucl, P.; Fregeau-Reid, J. Einkorn: A potential candidate for developing high lutein wheat. Cereal Chem. 2002, 79, 455–457. [CrossRef]

10. Humphries, J.M.; Khachik, F. Distribution of lutein, zeaxanthin and related geometrical isomers in fruit, vegetables, wheat and pasta products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 1322–1327. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. Sosulski, F.; Krygier, K.; Hogge, L. Free, esterified, and insoluble-bound phenolic acids. 3. Composition of phenolic acids in cereal and potato flour. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1982, 30, 337–340. [CrossRef]

12. Poutanen, K.; Shepherd, R.; Shewry, P.R.; Delcour, J.A.; Bjorck, I.; Van Der Kamp, J.W. Beyond whole grain:

The European HEALTH GRAIN project aims at healthier cereal foods. Cereal Foods World 2008, 53, 32–35. [CrossRef]

13. Slavin, J. Why whole grains are protective: Biological mechanisms. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2003, 62, 129–134.

[CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. Bordoni, A.; Danesi, F.; Di Nunzio, M.; Taccari, A.; Valli, V. Ancient wheat and health: A legend or the reality?

A review on KAMUT khorasan wheat. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2016, 28, 1–9. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. Hidalgo, A.; Brandolini, A. Nutritional properties of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.). J. Sci. Food Agric.

2014, 94, 601–612. [CrossRef] [PubMed] Nutrients 2017, 9, 1232

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16. Molberg, Ø.; Uhlen, A.K.; Jensen, T.; Flæte, N.S.; Fleckenstein, B.; Arentz-Hansen, H.; Raki, M.; Lundin, K.E.A.; Sollid, L.M. Mapping of gluten T-cell epitopes in the bread wheat ancestors: Implication for celiac disease. Gastroenterology 2005, 128, 393–401. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17. Sánchez-Pardo, M.E.; Blancas-Nápoles, J.A.; Vázquez-Landaverde, P.A.; Nari, A.; Taglieri, I.; Ortiz-Moreno, A.; Mayorga-Reyes, L.; Sanmartin, C.; Bermúdez-Humarán, L.G.; Torres-Maravilla, E. The use of Mexican xaxtle as leavening agent in Italian straight dough bread making to produce pulque bread. Agrochimica 2016, 60, 329–342.

18. Venturi, F.; Sanmartin, C.; Taglieri, I.; Nari, A.; Andrich, G.; Zinnai, A. Effect of the baking process on artisanal sourdough bread-making: A technological and sensory evaluation. Agrochimica 2016, 60, 222–234.

19. Ganzle, M.G. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation. Food Microbiol. 2014, 37, 2–10. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. Gobbetti, M.; Rizzello, G.C.; Di Cagno, R.; De Angelis, M. How the sourdough may affect the functional features of leavened baked goods. Food Microbiol. 2014, 37, 30–40. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Einkorn: christmas spells

by luciano

(for a finally normal 2021!)
A test for the realization of a very particular product: the carasau bread (puff bread) of pure einkorn wheat. A not easy realization considering the rheological characteristics of the einkorn wheat: little gluten and also weak. The dough has very little elasticity and cannot be manipulated for long because the gluten network breaks down. Method chosen: this test was carried out using the method (increasing the quantity of the pre-ferment) of the pre-ferment followed by the final dough already used for the bread.
Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – of a a retarder prover. Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour (a flour through a 600 micron sieve), stone-ground flour, produced by “I grani di Atlantide” di Lorenzo Moi” 2019 harvest.
The “W” index of this flour is modest, placing itself below the value of 50. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). The method is for expert people”.

Idratation 55% 900 =545gr. (500gr. wtater + LiCoLi whater 45gr. )

Glycemic index and grains

by luciano

Glycemic index is very important for diabetics in managing blood sugar, or even those who have been told they are at risk for developing diabetes. Wheat, given its high use for many consumer products,has been and is the subject of many researches and studies in relation to its glycemic index. The glycemic index of a product made with wheat is related to, among other things:
the composition of the sugars of its starch
the degree of refinement of the flour used
the method of preparing the dough

Composition of wheat starch sugars
Wheat starch is composed of two sugars amylose and amylopctin. Amylose is more prevalent in quantity than amylopectin and is rapidly hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes resulting, therefore, more responsible for the “glycemic peak”. T. monococcum wheat (einkorn) is an exception because the amylose content (23.3-28.6% of the total starch) (Hidalgo et al .. 2014) is lower than durum wheat (30% ) and soft wheat (35-43
Degree of refinement of the flour
Wholemeal flour has a lower glycemic index than refined flour.
A large study examining almost 43000 people for up to 12 years found that a diet high in whole grains was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk [3].
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown a beneficial effect of fiber, especially wheat fiber, in reducing the risk of diabetes (1–2) and cardiovascular disease (3,4), and a recent report indicated that total dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced CHD risk factors in young people (5). Fung TT, Hu FB, Pereira MA, et al. Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;76(3):535–540. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Dough: Sourdough fermentation, the glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL).
The glycemic index (GI) is the number from 0 to 100 assigned to a food (pure glucose has been arbitrarily given the value of 100) which is indicative of the relative rise in blood glucose levels found 2h after the food has been consumed. The GI of a specific food depends primarily on the quantity and type of carbohydrate it contains, but it is also affected by numerous other factors including the amount of organic acids.
The glycemic load (GL) is a value indicating how quickly a given food portion elevates blood glucose levels. It takes into account both the amount of carbohydrates in the serving and how quickly it raises blood glucose levels (GL = GI × carbohydrate/100). A GL of 0–10 = low GL; 11–19 = medium GL; 20 and over = high GL). Sourdough fermentation of wheat flour dough significantly lowers the GI of bread by reducing the rate of starch digestion, mostly through the formation of organic acids that delay the absorption of starch [6]. Starch is absorbed more slowly in the presence of lactic acid due to the inhibition of amylolytic enzymes, and its bioavailability is reduced due to the interaction between starch and gluten [7]. Acetic acid delays the gastric empting rate [8]. The Mediterranean way: why elderly people should eat wholewheat sourdough bread—a little known component of the Mediterranean diet and healthy food for elderly adults. Antonio Capurso, Cristiano Capurso. 13 november 2019 springer

1 – Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Hennekens CH, Willett WC: A prospective study of whole-grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in US women. Am J Public Health 90: 1409–1415, 2000 PubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

2 – Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Jenkins DJ, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL, Willett WC: Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20:545–550, 1997.  Abstract/FREE Full TextGoogle Scholar

3 – Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, Rimm E, Manson JE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC: Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 70:412–419, 1999. Abstract/FREE Full TextGoogle Scholar

4 – Wolk A, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hu FB, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC: Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 281:1998–2004, 1999
CrossRefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
5 – Ludwig DS, Pereira MA, Kroenke CH, Hilner JE, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR Jr: Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA 282:1539–1546, 1999.  CrossRefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
6 – Poutanen K, Flander L, Katina K (2009) Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective. Food Microbiol 26:693–699
7 – Liljeberg H, Björck I (1998) Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur J Clin Nutr 52:368–371
8 – Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller JC (2008) International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care 31:2281–2283

“The glycemic index [GI] a system that ranks foods on a scale from 1 to 100 based on their effect on blood-sugar levels.”
The purpose of this scale is so that sensitive individuals can judge the impact a particular food will have on their blood sugar, and either eat or avoid it accordingly. This is very important for diabetics in managing blood sugar, or even those who have been told they are at risk for developing diabetes.
Now, that rank is from 1 to 100, but that means nothing without context.
• High GI foods are ranked at 70 or greater — like potatoes
• Medium GI foods are ranked at 56 to 69 — like sweet potatoes and corn; sweeter fruits like pineapple and apricots; and millet
• Low GI foods are ranked at 55 or lower — like carrots and other moderately sweet vegetables, most other fruits, most nuts/seeds; beans; dairy; and most grains
• Very Low GI foods are ranked below any of these because they have no impact on blood sugar or no established GI value — like non-starchy vegetables; spices; herbs; and meats and seafood
By the way, this information comes from The World’s Healthiest Foods.
The high GI foods cause a sudden and extreme spike in blood sugar levels, while medium/low GI foods produce a more gradual increase.

Kewords: glycemic index, glycemic load, einkorn, monococcum wheat, Wholemeal flour

Einkorn bread 100%. new test with indirect method

by luciano

New test with indirect method to obtain a einkorn wheat bread with very high digestibility and tolerability. (suitable for non-celiac gluten / wheat sensitive people).
This test follows the one presented on 27th -September -2019: https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/09/27/einkorn-bread100/
From that presentation we take all the introductory part that remains unchanged. “Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of einkorn wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/).
For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.
In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)
Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).
Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.
You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation. The use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread.”
Method chosen: this test is carried out using the pre-ferment followed by the final dough.
Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – of a a retarder prover.
Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour (a flour through a 600 micron sieve), stone-ground flour, produced by “Podere Pereto Rapolano Terme Siena, 2019 harvest. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). The method is for expert people”.

The purpose of test
The purpose of this test is to try to reach the limit of tightness of the dough so consequently the lactobacilli of the sourdough can hydrolyze (break) as much as possible the gluten to make it more digestible and tolerable. Beyond this limit we have the total disintegration of the glutinic network. The product obtained is a bread suitable for people (NOT CELIAC PEOPLE) who have a lot of difficulty with gluten.

Obviously it is possible by decreasing, for example, the fermentation time from 21 hours to 18 in order to have a less hydrolyzed dough obtaining an absolutely excellent bread. The “W” index of this flour is modest, placing itself below the value of 50. This means that the dough has little stability and develops a limited and weak glutinic network. I remember that in all the doughs made with flours with little “strength” it is essential to be able to introduce air into the dough which, during the cooking phase, will help to make the crumb non-compact.
Idratazione 60% 900 =540gr. (effettiva con 45 acqua licoli = 585gr. pari al 65% circa)










540-180 =360gr.

260 + 100 (-20gr)*






L. di B.

0,8gr.+10gr. acqua

0,8gr.+10gr. acqua





1,2% di 900gr.





1,8% di 900gr.





* this value is variable depending on the moisture content of the flour and also on the degree of wheat grinding, in the test carried out the amount of water added in the final phase (5 steps) was, precisely 80gr. instead of 100gr. that was the standard average value to use.

1 step: refresh the sourdough – made with Podere Pereto einkorn wheat- as liquid batter (Li.Co.Li.) not as stiff dough twice in a row and use it well mature (preparation times vary depending on the room temperature, on average 4 hours + 4 hours). Li.Co.Li. should be stored (as a precaution) in the refrigerator and, therefore, before cooling it, it should be kept for at least 1 hour at room temperature.
2 step: prepare the preferment with 400gr. flour and 180gr. of water, both cold (from the refrigerator), 90gr. of LiCoLi and 0.8gr. of fresh compressed beer yeast dissolved in very little non-cold water. The preferment should be mixed unstrung, it must not be wet or dry but lumpy pasty. The temperature of the pre-mix at the end of the preparation must be around 18C °.
3 step: put the pre-dough in a plastic bowl (lightly greased with seed oil) covered at 18 ° C for 12 hours.
4 step: after 12 hours, place the pre-dough in a mixer / mixer bowl, add 260gr. of water and use a blade blender to dissolve it and incorporate a lot of air (perform with care). Now add the malt (10.8gr.), the yeast (0.8gr.) and blend again (about 5 minutes).
5 step: now using the planetary mixer with the hook, add all the flour still available and 80gr. of water to the mixture referred to in the previous step (it is not necessary to mix completely ). If there is flour left in the bottom of the bowl, add a little water, very very little. In this test, done with twice the amount of flour and, consequently, twice as much as any other ingredient, i used the Mecnosud Mamy Forcellina 7 mixer for this phase with speed 4 and time 10 minutes.
6 step: and complete by hand to homogenize.
7 step: then put the dough in a covered plastic bowl (lightly greased with seed oil) in the fridge for 21 hours checking that the temperature of the dough does not exceed about 18 degrees so that the dough ripens in the cold but little, very little yeast; the leavening will take place later (in this test I used a retarder ).
8 step: take the bowl from the fridge and put it with its lid on a hot surface (the one used in the rotisseries) heated to 30 degrees for 2 hours or more (the dough on the surface should reach a temperature of about 18/19 degrees ). In this test: 2 hours.
9 steps: pour the dough on a pastry board lightly greased with seed oil (resting on the warm surface), manipulate (make folds) the dough for about 2-3 minutes. Give it the shape of a “loaf” and place it in a leavening basket type banneton (covered with baking parchment paper). Place the basket in a closed plastic bag (it is used to keep the dough moist and not to dry out the surface) and put it on a hot surface at 30 degrees for about 1 hour or as much as needed for the proofing. In this test: 1 hour and 30 minutes.
10 step: place the dough with his baking parchment paper on a baking sheet and bake. You can also spill off the loaf over on the baking tray; I use this mode if the surface of the dough has many cracks. Make cuts on the surface as long as the dough is not too leavened or too hydrated.
11 steps: average cooking time 1 hour and 10 minutes (depending on the type of oven). Static cooking, possibly with a water pot inside for 1 hour; last 10 minutes naked loaf on the grid in the oven (the bottom of the loaf should still be slightly soft). In these 10 minutes the loaf will grow a little bit again.

Result: a bread with always different aromas and flavors full of the “hints” of the wheat used. Characterized by a light acidic note that accompanies its flavor thanks to the fermentation carried out by the sourdough. Acid fermentation which gives the bread digestibility and high tolerability.
A bread without gummy notes and with a long shelf-life. No additives, no improvers like all the loaves presented on this site. A bread with a rough crust and a good crumb present despite the fact that this flour – almost wholewheat – has little gluten and is rather weak. With this method if we we get to hydrolyze almost all gluten we will get a “crumbly” bread!
1 – step n. 4, 5, and 6: total time approximately 30 minutes
2 – the flour and water must have a temperature so that the dough has a temperature of about 18 degrees at the end of the 6th step.
3 – NEVER use dusting flour but anoint hands and pastry surface with very little seed oil.
4 – Doughs with flours with weak and low gluten have a gluten network with limited stability and strength. By heating the dough from below we preserve the surface a little from the early breakages.
5 – If the dough after refrigerator time has a broken surface, reduce the time of step n. 7 from 21 to 18 hours.
6 – The dough with einkorn flour in long maturations tends to release part of the water absorbed making the dough sticky: if excessive decrease the hydration (less water in step n. 5).
7 – These doughs are very hydrated and when they are put in the baking sheet they will tend to give a low bread. To obtain a bread, as in the photo, a plumcake type container should be used, handmade with the bottom of the oven aluminum containers; the soft walls of the container will allow the dough to “take” its own shape.

IMPORTANT: Buy Einkorn 100% semi-wholemeal wheat flour avoiding Monlis (because it has a very indigestible fraction –type 33mer). Hammurabi wheat is very difficult to use.

Photographic report:
Photo 1: dough after resting at 5 ° C.

Photo 2: dough in the basket for the final leavening.

Photo 3: dough ready for the oven

Photo A-B-C: baked bread







(1) – The conditions of grinding a grain determine the degree of damage starch, influencing the characteristics of the flour; a modest damage can be beneficial, an excessive degree is undesirable. The undamaged starch granules swell and gelatinize only weakly at the temperature good to kned dough and leavening, while for the damaged ones the process takes place almost totally. The starch granules, not damaged by grinding, during the dough fermentation process are not attacked by beta-amylase and only slowly by alpha-amylase which transforms them into maltose. In contrast, the crushed granules are hydrolyzed by amylases. The use of too finely ground flour, with a high percentage of damaged granules, leads to the formation of bread with a lower volume than normal, with moist and badly cooked crumb, characterized by an excessively dark color of the crust.

(2) – If the amylases are too active (Falling Number values ​​lower than 220 seconds) the final products will have a flat shape, moist and sticky crumb and dark crust. If, on the other hand, it is greater than 350, this flour will have a weak amylase activity and the final product will be little developed and with compact and dry crumb.

THE IMPORTANCE OF DAMAGED STARCH. It increases water absorption and provides extra nutrition for the yeast. A high level of damaged starch would result in sticky dough that produces a weak side wall and a sticky crumb (if enough amylolytic enzymes are available). The level of starch damage directly affects the water absorption and the dough mixing properties of the flour and is of technological significance. Damaged starch absorbs 2 to 4 times more water than regular starch granules. Sticky doughs, high water absorption, longer proofing times, and red bread crust color are just some of the effects of damaged starch. Damaged starch granules are susceptible to enzymatic degradation in comparison to native starches. Better knowledge of levels of damaged starch in flours is essential for better screening of flour. The optimum DS value varies with the use of the flour and is greatly dependent upon the flour protein content, the alpha amylase activity, and the type of bread to be made from the flour.

Keywords: Einkorn, non celiac gluten sensivity, gluten light, gluten light bread