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Einkorn bread 100%. new test with indirect method

by luciano

New test with indirect method to obtain a einkorn wheat bread with very high digestibility and tolerability. (suitable for non-celiac gluten / wheat sensitive people).
Introduction
This test follows the one presented on 27th -September -2019: https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/09/27/einkorn-bread100/
From that presentation we take all the introductory part that remains unchanged. “Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of einkorn wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/).
For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.
In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)
Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).
Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.
You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation. The use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread.”
Method chosen: this test is carried out using the pre-ferment followed by the final dough.
Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – of a a retarder prover.
Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour (a flour through a 600 micron sieve), stone-ground flour, produced by “Podere Pereto Rapolano Terme Siena, 2019 harvest. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). The method is for expert people”.

The purpose of test
The purpose of this test is to try to reach the limit of tightness of the dough so consequently the lactobacilli of the sourdough can hydrolyze (break) as much as possible the gluten to make it more digestible and tolerable. Beyond this limit we have the total disintegration of the glutinic network. The product obtained is a bread suitable for people (NOT CELIAC PEOPLE) who have a lot of difficulty with gluten.

Obviously it is possible by decreasing, for example, the fermentation time from 21 hours to 18 in order to have a less hydrolyzed dough obtaining an absolutely excellent bread. The “W” index of this flour is modest, placing itself below the value of 50. This means that the dough has little stability and develops a limited and weak glutinic network. I remember that in all the doughs made with flours with little “strength” it is essential to be able to introduce air into the dough which, during the cooking phase, will help to make the crumb non-compact.
Ingrendients
Idratazione 60% 900 =540gr. (effettiva con 45 acqua licoli = 585gr. pari al 65% circa)

preimpasto

impasto

1

Farina

400gr.

500gr.

2

Acqua

180gr

540-180 =360gr.

260 + 100 (-20gr)*

3

LiCoLi

90gr.

0

4

L. di B.

0,8gr.+10gr. acqua

0,8gr.+10gr. acqua

5

Malto

0

10,8gr.

1,2% di 900gr.

6

Sale

0

16,2gr.

1,8% di 900gr.

11gr.

38gr.

681gr.

898gr.

* this value is variable depending on the moisture content of the flour and also on the degree of wheat grinding, in the test carried out the amount of water added in the final phase (5 steps) was, precisely 80gr. instead of 100gr. that was the standard average value to use.

Steps
1 step: refresh the sourdough – made with Podere Pereto einkorn wheat- as liquid batter (Li.Co.Li.) not as stiff dough twice in a row and use it well mature (preparation times vary depending on the room temperature, on average 4 hours + 4 hours). Li.Co.Li. should be stored (as a precaution) in the refrigerator and, therefore, before cooling it, it should be kept for at least 1 hour at room temperature.
2 step: prepare the preferment with 400gr. flour and 180gr. of water, both cold (from the refrigerator) and 0.8gr. of fresh compressed beer yeast dissolved in very little non-cold water. The preferment should be mixed unstrung, it must not be wet or dry but lumpy pasty. The temperature of the pre-mix at the end of the preparation must be around 18C °.
3 step: put the pre-dough in a plastic bowl (lightly greased with seed oil) covered at 18 ° C for 12 hours.
4 step: after 12 hours, place the pre-dough in a mixer / mixer bowl, add 260gr. of water and use a blade blender to dissolve it and incorporate a lot of air (perform with care). Now add the malt (10.8gr.), the yeast (0.8gr.) and blend again (about 5 minutes).
5 step: now using the planetary mixer with the hook, add all the flour still available and 80gr. of water to the mixture referred to in the previous step (it is not necessary to mix completely ). If there is flour left in the bottom of the bowl, add a little water, very very little. In this test, done with twice the amount of flour and, consequently, twice as much as any other ingredient, i used the Mecnosud Mamy Forcellina 7 mixer for this phase with speed 4 and time 10 minutes.
6 step: and complete by hand to homogenize.
7 step: then put the dough in a covered plastic bowl (lightly greased with seed oil) in the fridge for 21 hours checking that the temperature of the dough does not exceed about 18 degrees so that the dough ripens in the cold but little, very little yeast; the leavening will take place later (in this test I used a retarder ).
8 step: take the bowl from the fridge and put it with its lid on a hot surface (the one used in the rotisseries) heated to 30 degrees for 2 hours or more (the dough on the surface should reach a temperature of about 18/19 degrees ). In this test: 2 hours.
9 steps: pour the dough on a pastry board lightly greased with seed oil (resting on the warm surface), manipulate (make folds) the dough for about 2-3 minutes. Give it the shape of a “loaf” and place it in a leavening basket type banneton (covered with baking parchment paper). Place the basket in a closed plastic bag (it is used to keep the dough moist and not to dry out the surface) and put it on a hot surface at 30 degrees for about 1 hour or as much as needed for the proofing. In this test: 1 hour and 30 minutes.
10 step: place the dough with his baking parchment paper on a baking sheet and bake. You can also spill off the loaf over on the baking tray; I use this mode if the surface of the dough has many cracks. Make cuts on the surface as long as the dough is not too leavened or too hydrated.
11 steps: average cooking time 1 hour and 10 minutes (depending on the type of oven). Static cooking, possibly with a water pot inside for 1 hour; last 10 minutes naked loaf on the grid in the oven (the bottom of the loaf should still be slightly soft). In these 10 minutes the loaf will grow a little bit again.

Result: a bread with always different aromas and flavors full of the “hints” of the wheat used. Characterized by a light acidic note that accompanies its flavor thanks to the fermentation carried out by the sourdough. Acid fermentation which gives the bread digestibility and high tolerability.
A bread without gummy notes and with a long shelf-life. No additives, no improvers like all the loaves presented on this site. A bread with a rough crust and a good crumb present despite the fact that this flour – almost wholewheat – has little gluten and is rather weak. With this method if we we get to hydrolyze almost all gluten we will get a “crumbly” bread!
Note:
1 – step n. 4, 5, and 6: total time approximately 30 minutes
2 – the flour and water must have a temperature so that the dough has a temperature of about 18 degrees at the end of the 6th step.
3 – NEVER use dusting flour but anoint hands and pastry surface with very little seed oil.
4 – Doughs with flours with weak and low gluten have a gluten network with limited stability and strength. By heating the dough from below we preserve the surface a little from the early breakages.
5 – If the dough after refrigerator time has a broken surface, reduce the time of step n. 7 from 21 to 18 hours.
6 – The dough with einkorn flour in long maturations tends to release part of the water absorbed making the dough sticky: if excessive decrease the hydration (less water in step n. 5).
7 – These doughs are very hydrated and when they are put in the baking sheet they will tend to give a low bread. To obtain a bread, as in the photo, a plumcake type container should be used, handmade with the bottom of the oven aluminum containers; the soft walls of the container will allow the dough to “take” its own shape.

IMPORTANT: Buy Einkorn 100% semi-wholemeal wheat flour avoiding Monlis (because it has a very indigestible fraction –type 33mer). Hammurabi wheat is very difficult to use.

Photographic report:
Photo 1: dough after resting at 5 ° C.

Photo 2: dough in the basket for the final leavening.

Photo 3: dough ready for the oven

Photo A-B-C: baked bread

 

 

 

 

 

 

References
(1) – The conditions of grinding a grain determine the degree of damage starch, influencing the characteristics of the flour; a modest damage can be beneficial, an excessive degree is undesirable. The undamaged starch granules swell and gelatinize only weakly at the temperature good to kned dough and leavening, while for the damaged ones the process takes place almost totally. The starch granules, not damaged by grinding, during the dough fermentation process are not attacked by beta-amylase and only slowly by alpha-amylase which transforms them into maltose. In contrast, the crushed granules are hydrolyzed by amylases. The use of too finely ground flour, with a high percentage of damaged granules, leads to the formation of bread with a lower volume than normal, with moist and badly cooked crumb, characterized by an excessively dark color of the crust.

(2) – If the amylases are too active (Falling Number values ​​lower than 220 seconds) the final products will have a flat shape, moist and sticky crumb and dark crust. If, on the other hand, it is greater than 350, this flour will have a weak amylase activity and the final product will be little developed and with compact and dry crumb.

Deepening
THE IMPORTANCE OF DAMAGED STARCH. It increases water absorption and provides extra nutrition for the yeast. A high level of damaged starch would result in sticky dough that produces a weak side wall and a sticky crumb (if enough amylolytic enzymes are available). The level of starch damage directly affects the water absorption and the dough mixing properties of the flour and is of technological significance. Damaged starch absorbs 2 to 4 times more water than regular starch granules. Sticky doughs, high water absorption, longer proofing times, and red bread crust color are just some of the effects of damaged starch. Damaged starch granules are susceptible to enzymatic degradation in comparison to native starches. Better knowledge of levels of damaged starch in flours is essential for better screening of flour. The optimum DS value varies with the use of the flour and is greatly dependent upon the flour protein content, the alpha amylase activity, and the type of bread to be made from the flour.

Keywords: Einkorn, non celiac gluten sensivity, gluten light, gluten light bread

Einkorn bread with olive oil 100% -recipe-

by luciano

Einkorn bread with olive oil 100%
(suitable for people sensitive to gluten / wheat -NOT FOR CELIAC PEOPLE-)

This test follows the one presented on 27th -September -2019: https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/09/27/einkorn-bread100/
From that presentation we take all the introductory part that remains unchanged.
“Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of einkorn wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/).
For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.
In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)
Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).
Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.
You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation. The use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread. A first step we do using a simplified version (direct metod) of the a new industrial method that involves the construction of the pre-ferment followed by the final dough. Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – of a a retarder prover.
Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour, stone-ground, producer “I grani di Atlantide di Lorenzo Moi” 2018 harvest. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). The method is for expert people”.

Einkorn and protein composition

by luciano

Presentation of the study of Dt. K.J. Mueller et al. : Studies on the protein composition and baking quality of einkorn lines (2006).
The study analyzes the quantitative and qualitative composition of the proteins of 24 monococcus wheat cultivars. The study is interesting in that it highlighted the possibility of classifying monococcal accessions through the presence of γ gliadins. “The absence of a group of γ-gliadins at the beginning of the γ-gliadin elution region was unique for einkorn compared to all other wheat species. ” This feature allows it to be classified into four groups, further subdivision is possible by analyzing the number of ω5-gliadins present and the subunits of high molecular weight glutenins. In addition, the identification of the individual gluten proteins, their subgroups and the relationship between the components highlights the significant differences with the spelt flour and soft wheat and highlights the characteristics that make the einkorn wheat flour less performing for the production of salted bakery products (bread). More details in: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226901132_Studies_on_the_protein_composition_and_baking_quality_of_einkorn_lines

Einkor wheat bread 100%: the strength of gluten makes the difference

by luciano

The aim of the study
The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of gluten strength of the same genotype (equal genetic imprinting) but with different cultivation on the final volume of bread.

Test
Two loaves were made with two einkorn wheat flours which are completely identical in quantity of ingredients and methods of execution. Both flours used belong to the einkorn genotype type ID331; one (A) grown without any fertilizer or other chemical compounds, the other (B) grown with the supply of nitrogen.
Both loaves were prepared with the same method:
“New Method for making fermented bakery products n. EP 3305078B1: at the bottom of https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/09/27/einkorn-bread100/”.
The result clearly shows how the strength of gluten (1) played a decisive role in giving bread (B) a higher volume, a more open and regular crumb (Photo NN. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8).
It is known that the supply of nitrogen contributes to increasing both the quantity and strength of gluten (2). This was a decisive factor for the development of agrotechnics which allowed flour to be produced with better workability from an industrial point of view; the increase in the strength of gluten, however, led in parallel to a less digestible (3) and less tolerable (4) gluten.

Monococcum wheat (einkorn wheat): why it is so important

by luciano

Summary of the main characteristics of the monococcum wheat (einkorn) which give it great potential to be used for the preparation of bakery products but also sweet ones for people who:
1. are genetically predisposed for celiac disease (1) (2) (3) (4) (5),
2. must keep the glycemic index under control (6),
3. are non-celiac gluten sensitive, reintroduce gluten after its exclusion (7),
4. have difficulty digesting gluten (8).
5. are sensitive to ATI -amylase trypsina inhibitors-. (9)
6. Also worthy of note is the high nutritional qualities of monococcus wheat (einkorn) (10)
(1)- Immunogenicity of monococcum wheat in celiac patients
………..omissis. “Conclusions: Our data show that the monococcum lines Monlis and ID331 activate the CD T cell response and suggest that these lines are toxic for celiac patients. However, ID331 is likely to be less effective in inducing CD because of its inability to activate the innate immune pathways”. Immunogenicity of monococcum wheat in celiac patients. Carmen Gianfrani et altri. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:1339–45.

(2) ………omissis. “D’altra parte, tenuto conto che l’incidenza e la gravità della celiachia dipende dalla quantità e dalla nocività delle prolamine e che alcuni genotipi di grano monococco hanno una elevata qualità panificatoria accoppiata con assenza di citotossicità e ridotta immunogenicità, è atteso che l’uso delle farine di monococco nella dieta della popolazione generale, all’interno della quale si trova una elevata percentuale di individui predisposti geneticamente alla celiachia ma non ancora celiaci, possa contribuire a contenere la diffusione di questa forma di intolleranza alimentare. Ciò lascia pensare che il grano monococco, riportato recentemente in coltivazione in Italia dai ricercatori del Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA) di Roma e San Angelo Lodigiano, potrà svolgere un ruolo importante nella prevenzione della celiachia, sia direttamente sotto forma di pane e pasta sia indirettamente come specie modello per lo studio del ruolo dell’immunità innata nell’insorgenza della celiachia”. Le nuove frontiere delle tecnologie alimentari e la celiachia Norberto Pogna, Laura Gazza (2013).

(3)-Extensive in vitro gastrointestinal digestion markedly reduces the immune-toxicity of Triticum monococcum wheat: Implication for celiac disease
Carmen Gianfrani, Alessandra Camarca, Giuseppe Mazzarella, Luigia Di Stasio, Nicola Giardullo, Pasquale Ferranti, Gianluca Picariello, Vera Rotondi Aufiero, Stefania Picascia, Riccardo Troncone, Norberto Pogna, Salvatore Auricchio
and Gianfranco Mamone. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2015, 00, 1–11
Scope: The ancient diploid Triticum monococcum is of special interest as a candidate low-toxic wheat species for celiac disease patients. Here, we investigated how an in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion, affected the immune toxic properties of gliadin from diploid compared to hexaploid wheat.
Method and results: Gliadins from Triticum monococcum, and Triticum aestivum cultivars were digested using either a partial proteolysis with pepsin-chymotrypsin, or an extensive degradation that used gastrointestinal enzymes including the brush border membrane enzymes. The immune stimulatory properties of the digested samples were investigated on T-cell lines and jejunal biopsies from celiac disease patients. The T-cell response profile to the Triticum mono coccum gliadin was comparable to that obtained with Triticum aestivum gliadin after the partial pepsin-chymotrypsin digestion. In contrast, the extensive gastrointestinal hydrolysis drastically reduced the immune stimulatory properties of Triticum monococcum gliadin. MS-based analy- sis showed that several Triticum monococcum peptides, including known T-cell epitopes, were degraded during the gastrointestinal treatment, whereas many of Triticum aestivum gliadin survived the gastrointestinal digestion.
Conclusion: he pattern of Triticum monococcum gliadin proteins is sufficiently different from those of common hexaploid wheat to determine a lower toxicity in celiac disease patients following in vitro simulation of human digestion.

ATI (Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors) First part

by luciano

Abstract
Amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (ATIs) are putative triggers of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), but contents of ATIs in different wheat species were not available. Therefore, the predominant ATIs 0.19+0.53, 0.28, CM2, CM3 and CM16 in eight cultivars each of common wheat, durum wheat, spelt, emmer and einkorn grown under the same environmental conditions were quantitated by targeted liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) using specific marker peptides as internal standards. The results were compared to a label-free untargeted LC-MS/MS analysis, in which protein concentrations were determined by intensity based absolute quantitation (iBAQ). Both approaches yielded similar results. Spelt and emmer had higher ATI contents than common wheat, with durum wheat in between. Only three of eight einkorn cultivars contained ATIs in very low concentrations. The distribution of ATI types was characteristic for hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid wheat species and suitable as species-specific fingerprint. The results point to a better tolerability of einkorn for NCGS patients, because of very low total ATI contents. Targeted LC-MS/MS Reveals Similar Contents of α-Amylase/Trypsin-Inhibitors as Putative Triggers of Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity in All Wheat Species except Einkorn.
Article in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 66(46) · October 2018. Sabrina Geisslitz, Christina Ludwing, Katharina Scherf (Technische Universität München Munich, Bayern, Germany).

Reintrodution gluten after after some period on a gluten-free diet for NCGS (non celiac gluten sensivity)

by luciano

“Once the diagnosis of NCGS is reasonably reached, the management and follow-up of patients is completely obscure. A logical approach is to undertake a gluten-free dietary regimen for a limited period (e.g., six months), followed by the gradual reintroduction of gluten. During the gluten-free diet, the ingestion of prolamine peptide (gliadin)-derived from wheat, rye, barley, oats, bulgur, and hybrids of these cereal grains-should be avoided. Rice, corn, and potatoes have been the typical substitutes, but nowadays other different cereals and pseudocereals, such as amaranth, buckwheat, manioc, fonio, teff, millet, quinoa, and sorghum, can be used. After some period on a gluten-free diet, the reintroduction of gluten can start with cereals of low gluten content (e.g., oats). In addition, einkorn farro (Triticum monococcum) can be used, having no direct in vitro or ex vivo toxicity and low (7%) gluten content[41]”. (Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: Time for sifting the grain. Luca Elli, Leda Roncoroni, and Maria Teresa Bardella. Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved).

Einkorn bread100% (suitable for people sensitive to gluten / wheat not celiac)

by luciano

Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of enkir wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/) For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.

In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)

 Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).

Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.

 You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation: the use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread. A first step we do using a simplified version (direct method) of the a new industrial method  (1) that involves the construction of the pre-ferment followed by the final dough. Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – a retarder prover with controlled temperature and humidity.

Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour, stone-ground. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). Further clarification: the method is for expert people.

Method – recipe

Quantitation of the immunodominant 33-mer peptide from α-gliadin in wheat flours

by luciano

In wheat there are multiple fractions able to activate the adverse response of the human immune system. Among these fractions the most active is that called 33-mer because it is the most resistant to human digestion and because it contains six copies of the three toxic epitopes and its intermolecular bonds are very strong. It is therefore important to know the quantity of this fraction in the grains. The study of which some parts are reported, examined 57 different types of wheat, ancient and modern, noting that the difference, in all soft wheat and spelt flour, of 33-mer is wide: from 90.9 to 602.6 μg / g made with flour. On the other hand, its presence in monococcum wheat and durum wheat was not detected. These results take on great importance because they allow grains to be chosen with limited or no presence of this important toxic fraction for products that are more suitable for non-celiac gluten sensitive people or those suffering from gluten disorders.

“All gluten protein fractions, namely the alcohol-soluble prolamins and the insoluble glutelins, contain CD-active epitopes3. The prolamin fraction is particularly rich in proline and glutamine and the numerous proline residues lead to a high resistance to complete proteolytic digestion by human gastric, pancreatic, and brushborder enzymes. Studies by Shan et al. (2002) showed that a large 33-mer peptide (LQLQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQPF) from α2-gliadin (position in the amino acid sequence of α2-gliadin: 56–88) is resistant to cleavage by intestinal peptidases4,5. The 33-mer is widely called the most immunodominant gluten peptide4,6,7, because it contains three overlapping T-cell epitopes, namely PFPQPQLPY (DQ2.5-glia-α1a, one copy), PYPQPQLPY (DQ2.5-glia-α1b, two copies) and PQPQLPYPQ (DQ2.5-glia-α2, three copies)3, which result in the initiation of a strong immune response.

Potential Health Benefits of Einkorn-Based Breads

by luciano

The research we present can be considered the first integrated assessment of the potential benefits, linked to the excellent nutritional properties, of the use for bread and derivatives of Einkorn. The research emphasizes the use of whole wheat flour and sourdough is essential to obtain the best results in terms of exploiting the potential of this grain. The choice of this grain is well summarized in a passage of research: “Einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) is an ancient crop. Compared to polyploid wheats it has a higher content of proteins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, fructans, and phytochemicals as tocols, carotenoids, alkylresorcinols, phytosterols, and a lower α-, β-amylase and lipoxygenase activities [15]. In addition, einkorn expresses very few T-cell stimulatory gluten peptides [16]. Einkorn could represent a valid alternative for producing functional baked products.

“Abstract: Nowadays the high nutritional value of whole grains is recognized, and there is an increasing interest in the ancient varieties for producing wholegrain food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics. Among ancient crops, einkorn could represent a valid alternative. In this work, einkorn flours were analyzed for their content in carotenoids and in free and bound phenolic acids, and compared to wheat flours. The most promising flours were used to produce conventional and sourdough fermented breads. Breads were in vitro digested, and characterized before and after digestion. The four breads having the best characteristics were selected, and the product of their digestion was used to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effect using Caco-2 cells. Our results confirm the higher carotenoid levels in einkorn than in modern wheats, and the effectiveness of sourdough fermentation in maintaining these levels, despite the longer exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Moreover, in cultured cells einkorn bread evidenced an anti-inflammatory effect, although masked by the effect of digestive fluid. This study represents the first integrated evaluation of the potential health benefit of einkorn-based bakery products compared to wheat-based ones, and contributes to our knowledge of ancient grains.

Einkorn Characterization for Bread and Cookie Production in Relation to Protein Subunit Composition

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The research showed, through tests to make bread and biscuits, the best varieties of monococcum wheat among the 24 examined: among these the varieties ID140, ID280 and Id361 were the best for both uses. The research also shows how, due to the rheological properties of the flours, the presence or absence of a very limited number of storage protein subunits is important, highlighting the importance of LMW

Einkorn Characterization for Bread and Cookie Production in Relation to Protein Subunit Composition M. Corbellini, S. Empilli, P. Vaccino, A. Brandolini, B. Borghi, M. Heun, and F. Salamini. Cereal Chem. 76(5):727–733
Abstract
“Twenty-four einkorns were evaluated for agronomic traits in Italy and in Germany in replicated plot trials. After dehulling and milling, the harvested kernels, flour protein content, sedimentation volume, falling number, carotenoid, and dry gluten content were determined. Farinograph profiles were obtained with a farinograph and baking and cookie quality were evaluated with standard microtests. Significant differences in yield potential were observed between the two locations, with a three-fold increase in Germany as compared with Italy. One of the einkorn lines (ID529) had farinograph stability and degree of softening indices better than those of the control bread wheat. All the samples analyzed for breadmaking aptitude showed some degree of stickiness, but it was possible to handle the dough during the different steps of breadmaking. On average, cookies produced with einkorn flour were larger in diameter and thinner than those produced with soft wheat flour. The composition in α, β and γ-gliadins and in high molecular weight glutenin subunits was similar in all the lines. In contrast, the pattern exhibited in low molecular weight glutenin subunits correlated strictly with baking quality. In particular, the lines with bands arbitrarily designated a and b showed a high breadmaking poten- tial, while the lines lacking these bands had an ample range of variability but, on average, a much lower baking potential. Our data point to a simple genetic control of the breadmaking aptitude and indicate einkorn not only as a promising source of specialty foods but also as an ideal species for genetic investigations on wheat quality”.

NOTE:
LMW-GS: Low Molecular Weight – Glutenin Subunit

(Table extracted from the research)

Electrophoretic characterization of reserve proteins: glutenins and gliadins. They represent, with the different respective bands, the genetic imprint that defines and identifies the variety. (Table extracted from the research)

Monococcum wheat (einkorn) and wheat allergy

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The research reported in the summary highlighted the absence of ω-5 gliadin in the monococcum wheat responsible for wheat allergy: another important characteristic of the monococcum wheat!

Study on the Immunoreactivity of Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Wheat in Patients with Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis for the Production of Hypoallergenic Foods. Carla Lombardo, Michela Bolla Roberto Chignola Gianenrico Senna Giacomo Rossin Beatrice Caruso, Carlo Tomelleri Daniela Cecconi Andrea Brandolini Gianni Zoccatelli. Cite This:J. Agric. Food Chem.201563378299-8306. Publication Date:September 2, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02648 Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Abstract
“Wheat [Triticum aestivum (T.a.)] ingestion can cause a specific allergic reaction, which is called wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The major allergen involved is ω-5 gliadin, a gluten protein coded by genes located on the B genome. Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of proteins in Triticum monococcum (einkorn, T.m.), a diploid ancestral wheat lacking B chromosomes, for possible use in the production of hypoallergenic foods. A total of 14 patients with a clear history of WDEIA and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ω-5 gliadin were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) with a commercial wheat extract and an in-house T.a. gluten diagnostic solution tested positive for 43 and 100% of the cases, respectively. No reactivity in patients tested with solutions prepared from four T.m. accessions was observed. The immunoblotting of T.m. gluten proteins performed with the sera of patients showed different IgE-binding profiles with respect to T.a., confirming the absence of ω-5 gliadin. A general lower immunoreactivity of T.m. gluten proteins with scarce cross-reactivity to ω-5 gliadin epitopes was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the absence of reactivity by SPT and the limited cross-reactivity with ω-5 gliadin, T.m. might represent a potential candidate in the production of hypoallergenic bakery products for patients sensitized to ω-5 gliadin. Further analyses need to be carried out regarding its safety”.

Einkorn, emmer and durum wheat

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Einkorn, emmer and durum wheat: they do not have the “33mer” fraction considered the most active in activating the adverse response of the immune system in celiac subjects. Also for this reason they are the most suitable genotypes for the researches whose aim is to “detoxify” the flours or to intervene with particular enzymes to hydrolyse the “toxic peptides”, however present; they are also more suitable for non-celiac gluten sensitive subjects.

“Quantitation of the immunodominant 33-mer peptide from α-gliadin in wheat flours by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Kathrin Schalk , Christina Lang , Herbert Wieser , Peter Koehler  & Katharina Anne Scherf. Scientific Reports volume 7, Article number: 45092 (2017)

Abstract

Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. The 33-mer peptide from α2-gliadin has frequently been described as the most important CD-immunogenic sequence within gluten. However, from more than 890 published amino acid sequences of α-gliadins, only 19 sequences contain the 33-mer. In order to make a precise assessment of the importance of the 33-mer, it is necessary to elucidate which wheat species and cultivars contain the peptide and at which concentrations. This paper presents the development of a stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantitate the 33-mer in flours of 23 hexaploid modern and 15 old common (bread) wheat as well as two spelt cultivars. All flours contained the 33-mer peptide at levels ranging from 91–603 μg/g flour. In contrast, the 33-mer was absent (<limit of detection) from tetra- and diploid species (durum wheat, emmer, einkorn), most likely because of the absence of the D-genome, which encodes α2-gliadins. Due to the presence of the 33-mer in all common wheat and spelt flours analysed here, the special focus in the literature on this most immunodominant peptide seems to be justified……Omissis…..

Analysis of durum wheat, emmer and einkorn

The 33-mer peptide was also analysed in two durum wheat and two emmer cultivars (genome AABB) as well as two diploid einkorn cultivars (genome AA) (Table 1). In each of these wheat species, the 33-mer was not detected (<LOD). In comparison to hexaploid common wheat, durum wheat, emmer, and einkorn do not contain the D-genome, which originated from hybridisation of T. turgidum dicoccum (genome AABB) with Aegilops tauschii (genome DD)36. The absence of the 33-mer peptide can be explained by the fact that this peptide is encoded by genes located in the Gli-2 locus on chromosome 6D, which is missing in durum wheat, emmer, and einkorn. Studies by Molberg et al. showed clear variations in intestinal T-cell responses between common wheat and tetra- or diploid species due to different degrees of T-cell immunoreactivity between the gluten proteins encoded on the A-, B-, and D-genome. Einkorn cultivars were only recognized by DQ2.5-glia-α1a-specific T-cell clones, but not by DQ2.5-glia-α1b- and DQ2.5-glia-α2-specific T-cell clones. Emmer and durum wheat cultivars were all recognized by DQ2.5-glia-α1a-specific T-cell clones, but only two out of four emmer cultivars and three out of ten durum wheat cultivars activated DQ2.5-glia-α1b- and DQ2.5-glia-α2-specific T-cell clones37. Consistent with our results, Prandi et al.38 found that the 33-mer was not present in durum wheat. As a consequence, this peptide was used as a marker peptide to identify the presence of common wheat in durum wheat flours. One durum wheat cultivar was also analysed by van den Broeck et al.33 and the 33-mer peptide was not detected either”. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/deed.it

 

Monococcum wheat (einkorn) and the market offer

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Scientific research has long highlighted the peculiar characteristics of the monococcum wheat reported in (https://glutenlight.eu/2019/03/11/il-grano-monococco/) and can be summarized as follows:

  1. High digestibility of gluten
  2. High tolerability in relation to gastro-intestinal disorders (celiac disease excluded)
  3. High mineral and vitamin content
  4. High availability of bioactive components
  5. A different ratio between the components of starch sugar with a prevalence of slow absorption.

Monococcum wheat has, for some time, been the focus of producers-transformers and consumers. The offer, especially of flour, as well as of products is constantly increasing. The products offered, however, do not have, except in rare cases, complete traceability starting from the field to the table. On the flour packages it is rare to find indications regarding the variety of wheat from which it derives; on the final products we find the mandatory ingredients by law but, rarely, the preparation method. The speech, however, applies to all grains both ancient and modern. The greater attention to the monococcum wheat (einkorn) is due to the evocative force of its ancestral origin and to its characteristics of high digestibility, tolerability and healthy contents.

The variety of wheat used and the indicators that inform us about the quantity and “strength” of gluten would be particularly valuable to be able to include more digestible products in our diet when needed. Gluten, as it is formed during water and flour are kneaded, cannot be digested by our intestines, it must first be “broken” by digestive enzymes into very small “fragments”. In this way other digestive enzymes in the intestine will complete the work in order to make the gluten components “amino acids” assimilable. The lower amount of gluten and less strength will sometimes make our task much easier. Products made with monococcoum wheat flour (einkorn) and generally those made with “ancient grains” are advertised as “very digestible” or “highly digestible”. Both terms are very generic since they can present strong differences in terms of gluten quantity and “gluten strength”. Recently I bought two different monococcum wheat flours of which I pointed out the amount of gluten: one has a percentage of dry gluten of 9.6% the other of 17.1%! Same thing with the strength of gluten whose index in one case was 33 in another 71!These indicators are a first valid help that we could have to better balance, with the support of the doctor, our diet. It should also be remembered that the final digestibility of the product made with flours, whatever they may be, is also greatly influenced by the way in which the products are prepared: just think of the considerable contribution to digestibility that we can obtain by using sourdough, but this information is also generally absent or present in an ambiguous way or without specification of which flour was used: “… made with sour dough”. https://glutenlight.eu/2019/05/08/la-fermentazione-della-pasta-acida-ii-parte/.

Tolerability of the monococcum wheat (einkorn)

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A peculiar characteristic of this cereal is the high food tolerability. In the last few years numerous experimental evidences of the reduced toxicity of the monococcus wheat prolamins have been obtained. In particular, the prolamins of this cereal are not able to induce lesions in the intestinal mucosa of celiac patients (Auricchio et al., 1982; De Vincenzi et al., 1995; 1996) and to agglutinate K562 (S) cells, a in vitro tests strongly correlated with the “toxicity” of the prolaminic peptides. Furthermore, T. monococcum accessions of immuno-dominant sequences able to stimulate T lymphocytes have been identified (Molberg et al., 2005; Spaenij-Dekking et al., 2005; Zanini et al., 2013). Recently, Gianfrani et al. (2012) reported the results of a study on two monococcus wheat genotypes, Monlis and ID331, compared with the variety of tender wheat Sagittarius. However, while the proliferates of Sagittarius and Monlis, a variety of monococcus wheat free of ω-gliadins, are able to promote the proliferation of enterocytes in the crypts of the mucous membranes of celiac patients and to induce the synthesis of interliquine 15 (IL- 15) in intestinal villi enterocytes, ID321 prolamins, a monococcus wheat line containing only one ω-gliadin, show no effect. The results suggest that Monlis is able to activate innate immunity and promote the synthesis of interleukin 15 (IL-15), a key molecule in the induction of adaptive immunity, while ID331 does not seem capable of eliciting this type of immune response. All this is in agreement with the observation that the prolamins of the Monlis variety and other monococcus wheat genotypes without ω-gliadin behave like the prolamins of soft wheat in their ability to agglutinate K562 (S) cells and alter the intestinal epithelium. These rare toxic genotypes of monococcus wheat (<2%) differ from the others due to the peculiarity of not producing ω-gliadins, in which sequences able to counteract the toxicity of the other prolamins seem to be present. Although monococcus wheat proteins show reduced cytoxicity towards intestinal cells, the presence of immune-dominant epitopes precludes their use in the celiac diet.On the other hand, considering that the incidence and severity of celiac disease depends on the quantity and the harmfulness of the prolamins and that some monococcus wheat genotypes have a high bread making quality coupled with absence of cytotoxicity and reduced immunogenicity, it is expected that use of monococcus flours in the diet of the general population, in which there is a high percentage of individuals genetically predisposed to celiac disease but not yet celiac, can help to contain the spread of this form of food intolerance. This suggests that the monococcus wheat, recently reported in cultivation in Italy by researchers of the Council for Research and Experimentation in Agriculture (CRA) of Rome and San Angelo Lodigiano, will play an important role in the prevention of celiac disease, both directly in the form of bread and pasta both indirectly as a model species for the study of the role of innate immunity in the onset of celiac disease. FROM: The new frontiers of food technologies and the celiac disease Norberto Pogna, Laura Gazza (2013). Volume 212, 1 December 2016, Pages 537-542 Further confirmations were highlighted by the research: Protective effects of ID331 Triticum monococcum gliadin on in vitro models of the intestinal epithelium. Giuseppe Jacomino et al. 2016. Highlights: • ID331 gliadins do not enhance permeability and do not induce zonulin release. • ID331 gliadins do not trigger cytotoxicity or cytoskeleton reorganization. • ID331 gastrointestinal digestion releases ω (105-123) bioactive peptide. • ω (105-123) exerts a protective action against the toxicity induced by T. aestivum. Abstract A growing interest in developing new strategies due to coeliac disease. In the current study, we investigate the biological effects of ID331 Triticum monococcum gliadin-derived peptides in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Triticum aestivum gliadin derived peptides were used as a positive control. The effects on epithelial permeability, zonulin release, viability, and cytoskeleton reorganization were investigated. Our findings confirmed that ID331 gliadin did not enhance permeability and did not induce zonulin release, cytotoxicity or cytoskeleton reorganization of Caco-2 cell monolayers. We also demonstrated that ID331 ω-gliadin and its derived peptide ω (105-123) exerted to protective action, mitigating the injury of Triticum aestivum gliadin on cell viability and cytoskeleton reorganization. These results may represent a new opportunity for the future development of innovative strategies to reduce gluten toxicity in the diet of patients with gluten intolerance.

Ancient wheat species and human health: Biochemical and clinical implications

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An important study that highlights the interesting characteristics of ancient varieties of wheat in relation, above all, to some widespread gastrointestinal diseases (“This manuscript reviews the nutritional value and health benefits of ancient wheats varieties, providing a summary of all in vitro, ex vivo, animal and human studies that have thus far been published.”)

Premise:
Ancient wheat species “Although there is no precise definition, it is generally accepted that ancient wheat has remained unchanged over the last hundred years. In contrast, modern species have been extensively modified and subject to cross-breeding in what is commonly referred to as the “Green Revolution”. This term was developed to refer to a set of research and technological transfer initiatives that occurred between the 1930s and the late 1960s. The Green Revolution was initiated by Strampelli, who was among the first, in Europe and in the World, to systematically apply Mendel’s laws to traits such as rust resistance, early flowering and maturity and short straw. As a consequence, Italian wheat production doubled, an achievement that during the fascist regime was referred to as the “Wheat Battle” (1925–1940) [10]. After the Second Word War, some of Strampelli’s wheat varieties were used as parents in breeding programmes in many countries in a phase of the Green Revolution, defined as Norman Borlaug’s Green Revolution. This phase was instrumental in the development of the high-yielding varieties [10]. Thereafter, during the 1960s, research was concentrated on improving the storage protein quality, thereby increasing the technological properties. Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that were generally referred to as “high-yielding varieties” based on a higher capacity for nitrogen-absorption than other varieties. High levels of nitrogen in the soils causes the lodging of wheat before harvest. Therefore, semi-dwarfing genes were bred to improve to reduce both lodging and the maturation cycle. The principle results of this revolution were the development of modern varieties characterized by higher yield, a reduced susceptibility to diseases and insects, an increased tolerance to environ- mental stresses, a homogeneous maturation (to optimize harvest) and a higher gluten content (to improve bread and pasta quality). Whilst these intensive breeding programs helped to increase production and techno- logical quality, a concomitant decrease in genetic variability as well as a gradual impoverishment of the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of the wheat occurred, mainly determined by the complete replacement of ancient local breeds with modern varieties.”

Some passages of the study help to focus the most significant evidences that, although referring to a limited number of researches, open interesting perspectives for a greater use of ancient grains in order to reduce the disorders deriving from the ingestion of gluten:
About monococcum wheat: “Compared with soft wheat, einkorn showed a lower content of both total and resistant starch (mean value: 655 vs 685 g/kg dry matter (DM) and 25.6 vs 30–88 g/kg DM respectively) [7]. However, the amount of amylose molecules, that are digested more slowly, was higher than the amount of amylopectin molecules, thereby lowering both glucose and insulin levels in the blood after meals [14] and maintaining satiety for longer periods [15]. By evaluating the average protein content, einkorn protein values were 59% higher than those of modern wheat [16], but the bread-manufacturing quality of storage proteins were poor, making it better suited to the preparation of cookies or pasta [17]. The comparative analysis of lipids and fatty acid composition in einkorn and soft wheat germ revealed a higher content of lipids (+50%) in einkorn, with a greater proportion of monounsat- urated fatty acids (+53%), and lower polyunsaturated (−8%) and saturated fatty acids (−21%) [16]. With respect to phytochemicals, einkorn showed the highest concentration of phytosterols and tocols (1054 and 57 μg/g DM respectively), but this difference was mostly marked in the HEALTHGRAIN dataset [12]. In addition, einkorn, khorasan wheat and emmer wheat cultivars showed the highest content of total carotenoids (2.26, 6.65 and 8.23 μg/g DM respectively) and lutein (7.28, 4.9 and 2.7 μg/g DM), the major carotenoid with respect to all the other species [18,19]. Of interest, several lines of einkorn showed lutein values from three to eight-fold higher than soft wheat and two-fold greater than those for durum wheat. Some authors suggested that the higher carotenoid content in einkorn-made products could be a result of lower processing losses, linked to lower lipoxygenase activity [7]. “

Although there is insufficient evidence to suggest that ancient wheat varieties prevent gluten-related disorders, several studies have shown that a diet based on less-immunoreactive wheat products, with fewer amounts and types of reactive prolamins and fructans, may help in the improvement of gastrointestinal and/or systemic symptoms of some auto-immune or chronic diseases (eg, irritable bowel syndrome, etc.) [34]. These less-immunoreactive varieties, like einkorn, may be good targets for slowing the development of disease in populations genetically predis- posed to celiac disease and other wheat sensitivities [42].

On the other hand, a subsequent paper investigating how in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion affects the immune toxic properties of gliadin from einkorn (compared to modern wheat), demonstrated that gliadin proteins of einkorn are sufficiently different from those of modern wheat, thereby determin- ing a lower immune toxicity following in vitro simulation of human digestion [40].

Although concrete functional benefits are difficult to ascertain from random individual human trials, since they are subject to differences and/or limitations in experimental design, participant number and participant characteristics in the case of parallel arm studies, results unanimously suggest that the consump- tion of products made with ancient wheat varieties ameliorate not only pro-inflammatory/anti-oxidant parameters (where investigated) but also glycaemic and lipid status. Ancient wheat species and human health: Biochemical and clinical implications. Stefano Benedettelli et altri. September 2017. (Available online at www.sciencedirect.com)

Note:
Lodging is the bending over of the stems near ground level of grain crops, which makes them very difficult to harvest, and can dramatically reduce yield.

 

Depeening
Ancient wheat species and human health

More digestible starch in the Monococcum wheat

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The amylose content in T. monococcum (23.3-28.6% of total starch) (Hidalgo et al .. 2014) is lower than durum wheat (30%) and soft wheat (35-43% ), suggesting that the amylose content increases as the number of genomes increases. It also has small starch granules (so-called B-type) in greater proportion than grown wheat. Even large starch granules (A-type) have a significantly lower diameter in the monococcus grain (13.2 μm) than durum wheat (15.3 μm) or soft wheat (23.8 μm) (Taddei et al., 2009) and all this contributes to the high digestibility of foods based on monococcus wheat (Taddei et al., 2009), consequently the surface per unit weight of the starch grain granules (764 μm) is greater than to soft wheat (550 μm), and therefore more rapidly hydrolyzed by amylases (Franco et al 1992). Not all starch is rapidly hydrolyzed during digestion, the fraction that resists digestion and absorption in the human small intestine is called “resistant starch” and has physiological effects comparable to those of dietary fiber. However, single-grain wheat has a low content (0.2%) in “resistant starch” when compared to common wheat (0.4% to 0.8%) (Abdel-Aal et al., 2008).

Monococcum Wheat (einkorn)

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Monococcus wheat protein content, on average 15-18%, is higher than that of other cultivated cereals and has a nutritional value higher than that of common wheat and durum wheat. The studies carried out at the Research Unit for the Qualitative Valorisation of Cereals of the Council for Research and Experimentation in Agriculture (CRA-QCE) in the last ten years have allowed to identify many peculiar and nutritionally interesting aspects of the monococcus wheat. Among the characteristics that make it unique in the field of straw cereals we have (i) the high content of carotenoids, precursors of vitamin A and natural antioxidants, which is about 5 times that of soft wheat; (ii) the excellent availability of tocoli (vitamin E), which is about 50% greater than durum wheat and soft wheat; (iii) the high content in lipids (about 50% more than common wheat), with a clear prevalence of unsaturated fatty acids; (iv) the high percentage in ash and the high content in minerals (particularly interesting are zinc, iron and phosphorus) and (v) a content in fruits about 50-70% greater than soft wheat (Hidalgo and Brandolini, 2008) ). The monococcus wheat flour, almost impalpable, has a characteristic yellow color and is excellent for the production of biscuits, snakes, flakes and other bakery products (Brandolini et al., 2008; Pollini et al., 2013); there are also genotypes with an excellent attitude to bread-making (Saponaro et al., 1995; Borghi et al., 1996). Also the pastification quality is very high, both in terms of workability of the raw material and of the quality of the finished product: the spaghetti and the monococco wheat macaroni have a good resistance to cooking and a reduced loss of starch compared to those based on commercial groats. of durum wheat (Brandolini et al., 2008). Moreover T. monococcum possesses small-sized (so-called B-type) starch granules in proportion to the cultivated wheats.

Deepening:
1. Tolerability of the monococcum wheat
2. More digestible starch in the monococcum wheat