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Einkorn bread with olive oil 100% -recipe-

by luciano

Einkorn bread with olive oil 100%
(suitable for people sensitive to gluten / wheat -NOT FOR CELIAC PEOPLE-)

This test follows the one presented on 27th -September -2019: https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/09/27/einkorn-bread100/
From that presentation we take all the introductory part that remains unchanged.
“Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of einkorn wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/).
For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.
In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)
Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).
Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.
You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation. The use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread. A first step we do using a simplified version (direct metod) of the a new industrial method that involves the construction of the pre-ferment followed by the final dough. Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – of a a retarder prover.
Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour, stone-ground, producer “I grani di Atlantide di Lorenzo Moi” 2018 harvest. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). The method is for expert people”.

Einkorn bread100% (suitable for people sensitive to gluten / wheat not celiac)

by luciano

Scientific research has long highlighted, in addition to the great digestibility and richness of mineral contents, also the high tolerability of some varieties of enkir wheat (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/11/tolerability-of-the-monococcum-wheat/) For this reason we dedicate particular attention to this grain.

In summary some of the possible difficulties are:
1. The least amount of gluten
2. The lower strength of gluten
3. Damaged starch (1)
4. Amylase too weak (falling number greater than 350). (2)

 Furthermore, the creation of products for people who are sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac requires long maturation times for the dough so that the enzymatic processes also operate the transformations (hydrolysis) of starches and gluten (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/12/maturation-and-fermentation-of-a-mixture-of-water-flour-and-yeasts-and-or-lactic-bacteria/).

Long maturation times (over 24 hours) are not compatible with the stability of this type of dough at room temperature or above. Low temperature (4-6 degrees) a retarder prover (cold rooms for leavening control) must be used to slow the leavening and to help the maturation of the dough (or, for home preparations, the refrigerator). Once the maturation is over, it will then proceed rapidly to leavening/proofing. It must be used, because the product is designed for people sensitive to gluten / wheat but not celiac, the sourdough of the same grain we use or the most digestible and tolerable einkorn wheat. This sourdough will not give great contribution to leavening. Furthermore, the lack of gluten does not generate an abundant nor strong gluten network: we risk having a low and compact bread. You will have to introduce air into the dough during preparation.

 You will have to use a very limited percentage of fresh compressed Brewer’s yeast that has the function of starter and collaboration with the lactobacilli. The flour to be used should always be from organic cultivation: the use of nitrogen compounds increases both the percentage of gluten and strength and alters the glutenin gliadin ratio. (https://glutenlight.eu/en/2019/03/14/fertilizers-and-wheat/). These notes are part of a new industrial method for making dough for bread and dry products suitable with gluten-poor flours (limited percentage of gluten and limited “gluten strength”). They are the flours that, in current practice, are not used for the production of bread. A first step we do using a simplified version (direct method) of the a new industrial method  (1) that involves the construction of the pre-ferment followed by the final dough. Furthermore the method was adapted for a home preparation, so without the use – for example – a retarder prover with controlled temperature and humidity.

Times and temperatures have been defined for a semi-wholemeal einkorn flour, stone-ground. This clarification is necessary, because especially times and temperatures vary according to the flour (type and harvest) and its degree of refining (quantity of bran present). Further clarification: the method is for expert people.

Method – recipe

An opportunity to be seized: digestible and tolerable gluten. Why?

by luciano

An opportunity to be seized: digestible and tolerable gluten. Why?

Gluten (it is a protein compound that is formed when glutenin and gliadin, present in flour, are strongly mixed with water) is responsible for celiac disease in genetically predisposed subjects. Not all gluten is at the origin of this pathology: the research has, in fact, isolated some sequences of amino acids (they are the “bricks” that constitute gluten) that are responsible for the adverse reaction of the innate and adaptive human immune system. These sequences are present (even several times) in the molecular chains (peptides) that constitute gluten, and, above all in gliadins. There are many studies that aim to create grains or flours without these sequences, mixtures where the action of particular bacteria present in the acid paste destroy the toxic fractions. Particular enzymes (proteases produced by Aspergillus) have been identified that can activate a complete enzymatic digestion of gliadin, reducing or eliminating the reactive response of gluten-sensitive T cells. (Toft-Hansen H et al Clin Immunol. 2014 Aug; 153 (2): 323-31. Doi: 10.1016 / j.clim.2014.05.009. Epub 2014 Jun 3).

Gluten is indigestible as such, only if divided into constituent amino acids it can be digested and, after being passed into the blood, be assimilated. The action of “chopping up the gluten is carried out by the enzyme pepsin (it is the most important of the digestive enzymes and, activated by hydrochloric acid, attacks proteins and breaks them down into fragments called polypeptides which will then be broken down into individual amino acids by trypsin ), present in the stomach and the enzyme trypsin produced by the pancreas present in the intestine. These two enzymes are not always able to “break up” the gluten and the residues are eliminated by “normal” people. These residues, on the other hand, if they contain toxic sequences activate the response of the immune system that fights them as “enemies”. The more gluten is strong (ie the stronger the bonds of the molecules that make up gluten) the more difficult and the action of enzymes will be longer. You can be born celiac but you can also become genetically predisposed. At greater risk, of course, are the relatives and relatives of celiacs. Scientific research has shown that the use in the diet of foods produced with grains as light as possible and tolerable (with the least possible amount of “toxic epitopes”) reduces the possibility of becoming celiac and is indicated for non-celiac gluten sensitive people. An example regarding the monococcus wheat we find in the study:

“…..Conclusions: Our study shows that Tm (Grano Monococco) is toxic for CD patients as judged on histological and serological criteria, but it was well tolerated by the majority of patients, suggesting that Tm is not a safe cereal for celiacs, but that it may be of value for patients with gluten sensitivity or for prevention of CD.Copyright of European Journal of Nutrition is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.”

For some time now, scientific research has highlighted another gluten-related disease: non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Today it is possible to diagnose it only through a long and complex series of analyzes which, for this reason, cannot be widely applied. The research (well summarized in the attached research) is still on the high seas, in fact, in the realization of biomarkers suitable to diagnose this pathology in a certain and simple way. Finally it should be noted that although there are very many studies, researches and tests on patients, these have proved too partial to be able to define “with certainty” how the NCGS is activated. Gliadins, however, play an important role as anti-gliadin antigen has been found in patients diagnosed with this disease. Finally, the research showed that a light and tolerable gluten is less invasive for those with irritable bowel disease.

Gluten Light website presentation

Light why?

The scientific community has long highlighted the presence, increasingly accentuated, of a syndrome attributable to the consumption of products containing gluten distinct from celiac disease. The non-celiac gluten sensitivity, even if it regards a small percentage of the population, is in continuous progression and, in any case, concerns a segment that is no longer negligible. It is necessary to reconsider the use, in these cases, of grains with a less tenacious gluten, more digestible that is more tolerable even in cases of gastro-intestinal inflammation. Many scientific researches on ID331 single-grain wheat hope (for example) to use this grain to increase the prevention of celiac disease.
m>”Although noticeably less harmful, the monococco is not however suitable for patients who have already manifested celiac disease,” Gianfrani points out. “Instead, he may have good effects on the development of the disease in subjects at high risk of celiac disease. In fact, since there is a close correlation between the amount of gluten taken and the threshold to trigger the adverse reaction, a preventive action could be to use grains with lower gluten content. Therefore a grain like the monococco that contains a more digestible gluten, and therefore less harmful, could be a valid tool for the prevention of this pathology ”. According to the researchers, even those with gluten sensitivity would welcome a diet based on small spelled. “Today we know that foods made from monococcum wheat are well tolerated even by those who are a part of this eating disorder, which has characteristics different from celiac disease. Therefore, the next step in the research will be to perform the experiments directly on the intolerant subjects to confirm the lower toxicity of the monococcus and bring back to our table an ancient grain “, the researchers conclude. (ISA-CNR and IBP-CNR researchers have shown that small spelled contains a more digestible gluten than common wheat and may be suitable for people sensitive to this substance. The study is published in Molecular Nutrition and Food Research and opens new celiac disease prevention prospects.)”

The first glance goes to the ancient grains (the site clarifies the ancient term or, better, neither from a generally shared interpretation); some ancient grains obviously, since even here there are marked differences. The research focuses on those varieties with a much lighter gluten than (generally) modern grains (figure 22); grains often linked, if not always, to their territory of origin, grains that enhance the territory and also preserve genetic variability. The “modern” grains (briefly those on which Man has laid his hands with specific techniques) are certainly not “ad excludendum” but will be the subject of a later moment.

Cereals (and among these the grains) have a fundamental role in human nutrition and are at the base of the Mediterranean diet because they are the main source of carbohydrates, they provide fiber, B vitamins, mineral salts such as potassium, iron, phosphorus and calcium. The content of vitamins and minerals is greater in the case in which the grain is used in its “In the first decades of the 20th century, the Italian government strongly supported the research so much that in 1925 the project Battaglia del Grano was launched with the aim of making the nation self-sufficient in the production of wheat, without subtracting new land to other crops useful for national economy. The intense programs of genetic improvement carried out after the Second World War, led to the complete substitution of local varieties with new cultivars of reduced size and highly productive with a consequent decrease in the genetic variability of wheat “. (From: Morphological and agronomic characterization of ancient cereal populations Project: Ancient Fruits for new bread – NUTRIGRAN-BIO Project financed with funds from the Rural Development Plan for Umbria 2007-2013). Finally, in the last decades, the progressive industrial transformation concerning the production of bread and derivatives as well as pasta has pushed research towards the creation of varieties with a more tenacious gluten suitable for working with machines. The ancient varieties generally have a gluten not suitable for processing with the machines because they are not very extensible and with reduced stability to the kneading (the kneading time of the ancient varieties can be of few minutes while for the machines it takes much longer times). Modern varieties, not all, meet these needs.

It should be noted immediately, however, what is meant by ancient grains: The ancient term is improper and is used above all in communication, that is quick and concise but, often, misleading. The true differentiation must be made between existing varieties in the past and the object of mass or genealogical selection by man and those obtained by hybridization or genetic modification. These latter varieties are generally the result of different genetic improvement able to respond to different processing methods and different nutritional needs. They will be the subject of studies and research in a subsequent phase. The first varieties include – full-fledged – local or autochthonous varieties. Citing Dr. Ssa Porfiri: “Ancora oggi esistono in Italia varietà locali di Triticum. Solo per citarne qualcuna fra le più conosciute: il farro di Monteleone di Spoleto e il farro della Garfagnana nel dicocco; i frumenti teneri “Solina d’Abruzzo” e “Rosciole” dell’Appennino Centrale; Ruscìe, Saragolla/Saragolle, Marzuolo/Marzuoli nei frumenti duri. E perché al plurale? Perché le varietà locali, similmente alle popolazioni naturali, sono frutto dell’azione combinata di mutazioni, ricombinazioni, fenomeni di migrazione e deriva genetica, selezione e sono popolazioni bilanciate, in equilibrio con un determinato ambiente, geneticamente dinamiche, ma anche soggette a diversi gradi di selezione attuata dagli agricoltori. Pertanto, grazie alla loro variabilità
all’adattamento a
assumono tratti 
differenziati, tali da consentire una diversa identità genetica in ogni ambiente.”

Deepening:

1) Concept of species, variety
2) Morphological and agronomic characterization of ancient cereal populations